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Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species Standard 4.7.

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Presentation on theme: "Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species Standard 4.7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Threatened, Endangered and Extinct Species Standard 4.7

2 How many species are on Earth?  Scientists identified about 1.75 million  Could be as many as 100 million  Species can appear and disappear

3 Extinction  An extinct species is one that no longer exists.  Extinction is a natural process.  The rate of extinction is increasing due to human activities such as pollution.  Removing organisms will change ecosystems.

4 Effects of Extinction  Causes a loss of animals that help cycle nutrients through the environment  Lose plants that provide food and oxygen  Loss of organisms that could supply new medications

5 Biodiversity  Biodiversity – refers to the great variety of organisms on Earth  Three major levels –Genetic –Species –Ecosystem

6 Biodiversity  Also involves genetic variation within a particular species  Human Examples –Physical Traits – hair color, height, eye color and susceptibility to disease

7 Pennsylvania’s Biodiversity  More than 20,000 different species in PA  Besides animals other common organisms in PA include: –Insects, plants, fungi and lichens  Scientists in PA are trying to maintain biodiversity by listing and monitoring as many species as possible.

8 Lichens

9 Pennsylvania’s Biodiversity

10 Interactions Among Organisms  Remember the food web – all organisms rely on other organisms  Predator-prey relationships help to keep an ecosystem in balance –An organism of one species (the predator) eats a living organism of a different species (the prey)  Examples: polar bears eat fish, lions that eat zebras, robins that eat worms.

11 Examples Predator-Prey

12 Interactions Among Organisms  As the prey population increases, ecosystems can support more predators  As the prey population decreases, the lack of prey causes the predator population to decrease  This allows for a stable carrying capacity  This also allows the strongest and fittest members of the community to survive

13 Other relationships  Symbiosis – organisms live closely together over a long period of time  Can be parasitic, mutualistic, or commensalistic

14 Other relationships  Parasitism – one species, the parasite, feeds on a second organism the host  Parasite harms the host by living in or on it  Examples: ticks or mosquitoes that live off of the host  Parasitism promotes ecosystem stability by preventing the populations of some organisms from becoming too large

15 Parasitism Example

16 Other relationships  Mutualism – both species involved in the symbiotic relationship benefit  Examples: –Bees and flowers – bees feed on flower nectar, and spread flower pollen in the process –Lichens – are two organisms, alga and fungus that grew together The algae undergo photosynthesis and provide food for the fungi and itself while the fungi gathers water and minerals to share with the algae

17 Mutualism Example

18 Other relationships  Commensalism – one organism benefits while the other is not affected  Example: Trees in the rain forest block sunlight from reaching the ground, therefore plants such as orchids establish roots high in tree branches, growing through the high canopy to reach sunlight –The orchid can receive moisture and nutrients from the air and does not harm the tree

19 The Human Impact  When humans destroy habitats, kill off species or pollute the natural environment biodiversity often decreases  As a result ecosystems break down

20 Adaptations  Adaptation – special modification or characteristic that helps an organism better survive in its environment, and which typically develops over time or may be passed down from one generation to another  Adaptations can be structural (or physical), behavioral (or responsive)

21 Structural or Physical Adaptations  Examples: desert plants with thick, wax-coated leaves  Predator birds – bald eagles have keen eyesight and are capable of flying at great speeds in order to catch prey

22 Behavioral or Response Adaptations  Example: An animal that cannot regulate its internal temperature, such as lizards or snakes, sit in the sun on cool days to warm itself –Retreats to its burrow on hot days to cool itself

23 Structural Adaptations  Structural adaptations - are physical characteristics that help an organism survive in its environment  They help animals to perform basic tasks, such as moving or eating  Examples – Meat-eating animals have sharp incisors for killing prey  Plant eating animals have large, flat teeth that allow them to grind plants into pieces that are easily swallowed

24 Structural Adaptation Examples  Animals in deserts thousands of miles apart have the same types of adaptations  Plants that grow in the deep shade of forests have dark green leaves that increase their ability to catch any light that reaches the forest floor  Chameleon is a lizard that changes its color to match its surroundings at the time

25 Chameleon

26 Butterflies  Mimicry – an adaptation in which one species copies the appearance or behavior of another species  Recall the “Animal Camouflage” Article –Viceroy butterfly protects itself by looking like the monarch butterfly, which birds avoid because of their bad taste

27 Adaptation Advantages  Decreases competition  Allows species niche to be different  Allows species survival

28 Behavioral Adaptations  The way an organism acts or responds to its environment in order to survive  Can be reflexive or instinctive

29 Reflexive Behaviors  A behavior that is triggered automatically by something outside an organism  The behavior happens without the organism thinking about it –Example: Pulling your hand off of something hot –Example: Running from a loud noise

30 Instinctive Behaviors  A behavior that an organism carries out because it is genetically prone to do so  These are natural reactions –Examples: Traveling in a group (safety in numbers) –To look bigger and more frightening a blowfish expands its body with air –Male bioluminescent fireflies flash light to attract females

31 Other Adaptations  Hibernation – animals decrease their activity during winter months after constant eating during the fall  Estivation – to avoid the heat of summer some frogs, lizards and ground squirrels sleep through the summer in a dormant state

32 Other Adaptations  Migration – allows animals to find more favorable climates or feeding conditions after a change in climate

33 Courtship Rituals  Instinctive behaviors because they encourage animal reproduction –Male birds use songs to attract female birds  Structural adaptations –Male peacock struts using his colorful tail feathers so females will notice him

34 Survival of the Fittest  Which will survive in the snowy climate of northern Alaska? –White rabbit with long thick fur or –Gray rabbit with short fur

35 Natural Selection  Most helpful traits are passed on to future generations – Charles Darwin  Process that makes it more likely that organisms with the best characteristics for survival in a specific environment will survive, reproduce, and pass on their advantageous genetic traits to offspring

36 Populations  In order to evolve so the most advantageous adaptations become common three things must happen 1.Trait must vary within the species 2.The adaptation must be one that parents can pass on to offspring genetically 3.One version of the adaptation must benefit the members to that they survive and reproduce more than the members who do not have it  May occur quickly or take millions of years

37 Amazing Adaptations  Ice fish –Evolved to have no red blood cells and no hemoglobin –Oxygen dissolves in the blood –Allows fish to survive in the extreme cold

38 Human Impact  Negative –Destroying habitat –Polluting rivers, lakes  Positive –Repair damage already done –Protect whole ecosystems (conserve plants and animals) –Maintain biodiversity –Wildlife refuges –Protect endangered species

39 Protecting Endangered Species  Government protected habitats  Bred in captivity and then returned to wild –Examples: bald eagle, California condor  Restrictions to hunting

40 Bald Eagle  In 1700s population of 100,000 in 1970 population of less than 3,000  Cause – unregulated hunting and habitat destruction, DDT pesticide  DDT – caused eagles to produce eggs with shells that were too thin  Solution – Government protected eagle’s nest, bred in zoos, banned use of DDT  Population increased but still endangered

41 Bald Eagle

42 PABS  Pennsylvania Biological Survey (PABS) –Helps to maintain state’s biodiversity –Tracks and monitors plants and animals –Coordinates programs, surveys and research on PA wildlife –Developing bio-reserves throughout PA Help conserve ecosystems throughout the state

43 Endangered Species Act  ESA – US law that governs the protection of species whose populations are in decline and could be in danger of extinction  The law forbids hunting, killing, collecting or harming of species listed as endangered or threatened.  3 categories –Threatened, Endangered, Extinct

44 ESA Categories  Threatened –A species that still has many individuals in the wild but whose numbers are dwindling to a point at which the species could become endangered –Example: Green snake  Endangered –A species that has so few individuals remaining that extinction is a possibility in the near future –Example: Delmarva fox squirrel

45 ESA Categories  Extinct –A species that no longer exists –Example: Passenger pigeon

46 Factors Prone to Extinction  Specific food requirements  Specific habitat or nesting requirements  High on food chain or food web –These animals are more vulnerable to pollution  Migration  Reproduce a low rate  Limited habitat range  Interference with human activities

47 Help for Species in Danger  National Marine Fisheries Service and US Fish and Wildlife Service –Propose species the ESA will protect –Can delist species if species is no longer in need of protection Happened to bald eagle in 1999  Humans have accelerated extinction between 1,000 and 10,000 times

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