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Ecology The study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecology The study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecology The study of the interactions of organisms with one another and their surroundings

2 Organism Any living thing

3 Ecosystem Community of organisms (living things) that live in a certain area

4 Includes Living and Non-living surroundings

5 Living Things and the Environment

6 Biotic Surroundings Living Surroundings Other animals and plant life

7 Abiotic Surroundings Non-Living Surroundings Rocks, Water, Sunlight, Dirt

8 Energy Roles Each organism in an ecosystem fills a role

9 Three Roles 1.Producer 2.Consumer 3.Decomposer

10 Producers Plants Chlorophyll (Green) Photosynthesis

11 Consumers Feed on other organisms

12 Herbivores – Eat Plants Carnivores – Eat Animals

13 Omnivores – Eat both Plants and Animals

14 Decomposers Found in the Dirt Break Down dead material

15 Include mushrooms, earthworms, pillbugs, and bacteria


17 Energy Pyramids Shows the amount of energy that moves from one level to the next

18 The most energy is available at the bottom (producer level), and has less energy as you move up

19 General Rule…. Only 10 PERCENT of the energy is transferred to the next level.

20 Why? 90 % of the energy has already been used by the organism in order to survive. (Grow, breed)

21 Construct an Energy Pyramid Grass, Fungi, Lion, Zebra

22 Grass Zebra Lion Ecosystem Fungi

23 Construct an Energy Pyramid Catepillar, Bird, Earthworm, Leaf

24 Leaf Catepillar Bird Ecosystem Earthworms

25 Food Chain

26 Food Chains A series of events in which one organism eats another and obtains energy

27 Food Chains show only ONE possible path

28 Example Tree Caterpillar Bird

29 Food Webs

30 Consists of the many possible paths of obtaining food in an ecosystem (area)

31 More Realistic, since many producers and consumers are part of many food chains


33 First – Level Consumers Feed on the Producers

34 Second – Level Consumers Eats the first – level Consumers


36 Predator and Prey Interactions

37 Predator The organism that goes in for the kill

38 Prey The organism that dies

39 Example A shark kills a fish Predator Shark Prey Fish

40 Adapting to the Environment

41 Natural Selection A characteristic that makes an organism better suited to its environment

42 ADAPTATIONS Cactus – Sharp spines

43 Types of Adaptations Mimicry Protective Covering False Coloring Camouflage Warning Coloring

44 Camouflage Blending into the environment

45 Mimicry Copy Cat looks and acts like another species or object.

46 False Coloring

47 Environmental Change

48 Some animals change due to environmental changes (SEASONAL changes)

49 Arctic Fox WINTER

50 Arctic Fox SUMMER


52 Predator - Prey Interactions On Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior, the populations of wolves (the predator) and moose (the prey) rise and fall in cycles. Use the graph to answer the questions. Interactions Among Living Things

53 Predator - Prey Interactions Reading Graphs: –What variable is plotted on the x- axis? What two variables are plotted on the y- axis? –Year; numbers of wolves and moose Interactions Among Living Things

54 Predator - Prey Interactions Interpreting Data: –How did the moose population change between 1965 and 1972? What happened to the wolf population from 1973 through 1976? –The moose population increased and then decreased; the wolf population increased. Interactions Among Living Things

55 Predator - Prey Interactions Inferring: –How might the change in the moose population have led to the change in the wolf population? –As the moose population increased, more food was available to the wolf population and it increased. Interactions Among Living Things

56 Predator - Prey Interactions Drawing Conclusions: –What is one likely cause of the dip in the moose population between 1974 and 1981? –The wolf population increased. Interactions Among Living Things

57 Predator - Prey Interactions Predicting: –How might a disease in the wolf population one year affect the moose population the next year? –Disease would cause a decrease in the wolf population, so fewer moose would be eaten and the population could increase. Interactions Among Living Things


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