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Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition

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Presentation on theme: "Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition

2 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition

3 Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition
What is a population? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition What is the difference between a population and a community? A population is the number of individuals of the same species living in a certain habitat. Photo credit (left and right): © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation A community includes all the different species living in a certain area.

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What is a population? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition The size of the population within a community can change over time. What factors will affect population size? Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation competition predators disease migration

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What is competition? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Competition is one of the factors that affects population sizes. What type of organisms compete for resources? Competition occurs between different species…

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Why do animals compete? Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Members of the same species also compete for resources. Why do living things need to compete, and for what do they compete?

7 What do organisms compete for?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition What four things do animals have to compete for? food water mates space Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

8 What do organisms compete for?
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition What four things do plants have to compete for? light water minerals space Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

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Niche competition Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition A niche is the position that an organism occupies in a community. A niche organism has a specialized type of lifestyle. What happens if animals within a community have overlapping niches? Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Animals with overlapping niches compete. The greater the overlap between niches, the greater the amount of competition between the species.

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Competition losers Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition If species compete for all aspects of their niches, one species will better the other. Competition results in winners and losers. What three things might happen to the less competitive species? move to another area adopt new survival strategies become extinct in that area.

11 Competition in the meadow
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition

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13 Animals that eat other animals
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition A predator is an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. Predators can be either: carnivorous (eat meat only) e.g. wolves omnivorous (eat meat and vegetation) e.g. humans. Photo credit: © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation A prey animal is one that is attacked and eaten by a predator.

14 Predator and prey adaptations
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Predators are adapted to hunting, catching and eating prey. Prey are adapted to detecting and fleeing predators. Photo credit (left and right): © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

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Prey adaptations Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition The snowshoe hare lives in northern parts of North America. How is it adapted to avoid predators such as lynxes? greyish-brown fur turns white in winter for camouflage large ears help in detecting predators strong teeth for chewing bark and twigs large furry feet act as snow shoes and protect the soles from cold

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Predator adaptations Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition How are lynxes adapted for catching snowshoe hares? excellent eyesight and hearing, and very sharp teeth! warm thick furry coat protects from the cold very strong hind leg muscles capable of pouncing 6.5 metres! sharp claws for puncturing flesh extra large paws act as snow shoes

17 Predator-prey populations
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition This population data comes from fur trapping records. How are the populations linked? 50 estimated population size (thousands) 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 100 150 year lynx snowshoe hare

18 Predator-prey populations
Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition How does the lynx population depend on the number of snowshoe hares? 50 estimated population size (thousands) 1800 1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 100 150 year lynx snowshoe hare Take a closer look at this part of the graph.

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Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Why does the peak for the lynx population always come after the peak for the number of snowshoe hares? snowshoe hare 150 lynx For the populations to survive, there must always be more hares than lynxes 100 estimated population size (thousands) 50 1845 1850 1855 1860 1865 year

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Predator-prey cycle Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Predator and prey population sizes follow a cycle. What happens if the prey population increases? prey population increases prey population increases normal prey population predator population decreases because of less food predator population increases because of more food prey population decreases because of more predators

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Predator-prey cycle Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition Predator and prey population sizes follow a cycle. What happens if the prey population decreases? prey population decreases prey population decreases normal prey population predator population decreases because of less food predator population increases because of more food prey population increases because of fewer predators

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23 Glossary competition – The struggle for resources between individuals of the same or different species. community – All the different types of species within a specific area. niche – The position that an organism occupies in a community. population – The number of one particular species within a specific area. predator – An animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. prey – An animal that is killed and eaten by another animal.

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Multiple-choice quiz Boardworks GCSE Science: Biology Competition


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