Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetofauna Compiled by the Davidson College Herpetology Laboratory Eastern Hognose SnakeGreen Treefrog.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetofauna Compiled by the Davidson College Herpetology Laboratory Eastern Hognose SnakeGreen Treefrog."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetofauna Compiled by the Davidson College Herpetology Laboratory Eastern Hognose SnakeGreen Treefrog

2 Amphibians and Reptiles Ectothermic Ectothermic Use outside energy sources to maintain body temperature for metabolism and regulatory functions Use outside energy sources to maintain body temperature for metabolism and regulatory functions Cryptic Cryptic Very difficult to detect even though they can be highly abundant Very difficult to detect even though they can be highly abundant River CootersNorthern Watersnake Timber Rattlesnake Fence Lizard Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

3 Tetrapods Snakes have evolutionarily lost their legs Snakes have evolutionarily lost their legs Humans evolved from one of the same ancestors of extant reptiles Humans evolved from one of the same ancestors of extant reptiles Non-Tetrapod Vertebrates Frogs Salamanders Caecilians Reptiles Birds Mammals Adapted from the WhoZoo Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

4 Amphibians and Reptiles Very important to the ecosystem Very important to the ecosystem Prey and Predator Prey and Predator Prey item for animals including raccoons, opossums, and birds Prey item for animals including raccoons, opossums, and birds Prey upon insects, mice, and rats Prey upon insects, mice, and rats Bio-indicator Bio-indicator An animal that can indicate the health of an environment by its population structure and abundance An animal that can indicate the health of an environment by its population structure and abundance Green Anole Ringneck Snake Green Salamander Spring Salamander Eastern Spadefood Toad

5 Amphibians 88 Species in North Carolina 88 Species in North Carolina Highest salamander diversity in the world! Highest salamander diversity in the world! Huge Biomass Huge Biomass Biomass: Total weight of all amphibians in an area Biomass: Total weight of all amphibians in an area One isolated wetland produced 3 tons of amphibians One isolated wetland produced 3 tons of amphibians Spotted Salamander Three-Lined Salamander Southern Leopard Frog

6 Amphibian Characteristics Permeable skin Permeable skin Permeable: Allows the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide to allow respiration Permeable: Allows the transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide to allow respiration Can allow the uptake of chemicals in the environment Can allow the uptake of chemicals in the environment Good olfaction Good olfaction Olfaction: Sense of smell Olfaction: Sense of smell Prey upon: Prey upon: Insects, other amphibians, anything small enough to fit into their mouths, even mice Insects, other amphibians, anything small enough to fit into their mouths, even mice Green FrogSpring Salamander

7 Frogs Tadpoles lose tails and grow legs as they metamorphose Tadpoles lose tails and grow legs as they metamorphose True Frogs True Frogs Rana Rana Tree Frogs Tree Frogs Hyla Hyla Toe pads Toe pads Grey Tree Frog Southern Leopard FrogBull Frog Spring Peeper Green Tree Frog Upland Chorus Frog

8 Toads Similar to frogs Similar to frogs Tadpoles lose tail and grow legs as they metamorphose into adults Tadpoles lose tail and grow legs as they metamorphose into adults Less dependent upon water than frogs Less dependent upon water than frogs Have warty skin Have warty skin Paratoid Glands: Paratoid Glands: Glands behind the eye that secrete toxin Glands behind the eye that secrete toxin Fowler’s Toad American Toad

9 Salamanders Plethodontids: No lungs Plethodontids: No lungs Obligate, aerobic respiration through the skin Obligate, aerobic respiration through the skin Ambystomatids: Lungs Ambystomatids: Lungs Facultative, aerobic respiration through the skin Facultative, aerobic respiration through the skin Hellbenders Hellbenders Grow to 2 feet in the USA, but up to 5 feet in Japan Grow to 2 feet in the USA, but up to 5 feet in Japan Hidden gills Hidden gills Photo by Kristen Cecala Spring Salamander Marbled Salamander Hellbender

10 Amphibian Breeding Locations Streams Streams Adults utilize upland habitat for feeding Adults utilize upland habitat for feeding Use stream for breeding, larval period, and occasional foraging Use stream for breeding, larval period, and occasional foraging Wetlands Wetlands Adults live and feed in upland habitat Adults live and feed in upland habitat Return to wetlands to breed and undergo larval periods Return to wetlands to breed and undergo larval periods Terrestrial Terrestrial Adults never require water for reproduction Adults never require water for reproduction No larval stage No larval stage Utilize moisture under logs and leaf litter Utilize moisture under logs and leaf litter Spring Salamander Larva Redback Salamander

11 Caecilians Live in the tropics Live in the tropics Leg-less and blind Leg-less and blind Look very similar to a worm Look very similar to a worm Caecilians

12 Amphibian Life Cycle Upland Chorus FrogFrog eggs Spring Peeper calling Cricket Frog Spring Peeper Tadpole/Metamorph Pine Woods Tree Frog Tadpole

13 Amphibian Defense Mechanisms Toxin in skin Toxin in skin Toads and Newts Toads and Newts Producing large numbers of offspring Producing large numbers of offspring Producing noisy squawks when attacked Producing noisy squawks when attacked Green Frog Tadpole American Toad Red-Spotted Newt

14 Reptiles 70 species in North Carolina from 4 groups 70 species in North Carolina from 4 groups Antarctica the only continent without reptiles Antarctica the only continent without reptiles Snakes have no legs, but still tetrapods Snakes have no legs, but still tetrapods Evolutionary loss of legs Evolutionary loss of legs Boas still maintain a pelvic girdle Boas still maintain a pelvic girdle Copperhead Eastern Painted Turtle American Alligator Broadhead Skink

15 Reptiles First vertebrates to become independent of water for reproduction First vertebrates to become independent of water for reproduction Some reptiles have reverted to aquatic lifestyles, but still reproduce without water Some reptiles have reverted to aquatic lifestyles, but still reproduce without water Sea Snakes Sea Snakes Swamp Snake Swamp Snake Snapping Turtle Snapping Turtle Sea Turtles Sea Turtles Black Swamp Snake Snapping Turtle

16 Reptiles Ectothermic Ectothermic Maintain a constant temperature range Maintain a constant temperature range Maintained by basking, movement, and shivering Maintained by basking, movement, and shivering Brummation = hibernation Brummation = hibernation Yellowbelly Slider

17 Crocodilians American Alligator American Alligator Osteoderms Osteoderms Temperature Sex Determination Temperature Sex Determination Sex of offspring determined by the temperature at which eggs are incubated Sex of offspring determined by the temperature at which eggs are incubated American Alligators

18 Turtles Temperature sex determination Temperature sex determination Vertebrae integrated into shell Vertebrae integrated into shell No teeth: Beak similar to a bird No teeth: Beak similar to a bird Omnivorous Omnivorous 3 habitats 3 habitats Marine Marine Freshwater Freshwater Terrestrial Terrestrial Eastern Painted Turtle Snapping Turtle Loggerhead Sea Turtle Box Turtle

19 Squamata Snakes and lizards Snakes and lizards Jacobson’s organ Jacobson’s organ Olfactory organ Olfactory organ Tongue flicks out of the mouth and moves chemicals in the air to the organ Tongue flicks out of the mouth and moves chemicals in the air to the organ Extremely movable jaw Extremely movable jaw Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Green Anole Scarlet KingsnakeRough Green Snake

20 Lizards Extremely variable and diverse Extremely variable and diverse Many endemic species Many endemic species Leg-less Lizards Leg-less Lizards Glass Lizards or Jointed Snakes Glass Lizards or Jointed Snakes Lizards have eyelids and ear holes that snakes do not Lizards have eyelids and ear holes that snakes do not Five-lined Skink Fence Lizard Slender Glass LizardGround Skink

21 Snakes 37 species in North Carolina 37 species in North Carolina 6 venomous species 6 venomous species Copperhead, Cottonmouth, Coral Snake, Timber Rattlesnake, Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake, and Pigmy Rattlesnake Copperhead, Cottonmouth, Coral Snake, Timber Rattlesnake, Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake, and Pigmy Rattlesnake Most species are non- venomous Most species are non- venomous Black Rat Snake – non-venomous Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake - venomous Scarlet Kingsnake – non-venomous Ringneck Snake – non-venomous

22 Snakes All lack legs All lack legs Lack ear openings Lack ear openings Hear vibrations through the ground Hear vibrations through the ground Shed their skin to grow Shed their skin to grow Either lay eggs or give birth to live young Either lay eggs or give birth to live young Eastern Hognose Snake Ringneck Snake Redbelly Watersnake Black RacerCoachwhip

23 Snake Feeding Entirely carnivorous Entirely carnivorous Swallow prey whole Swallow prey whole Can eat prey much larger than themselves Can eat prey much larger than themselves Some use venom to immobilize prey Some use venom to immobilize prey Some constrict their prey Some constrict their prey Some actively forage for prey Some actively forage for prey Some sit and wait for prey to approach them Some sit and wait for prey to approach them Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake eating a Cottontail Rabbit Scarlet Kingsnake eating a Green Anole

24 Snake Defense Mechanisms Crypsis: Staying camouflaged Crypsis: Staying camouflaged When detected: When detected: Flee, musk, gape, rattle Flee, musk, gape, rattle When these do not work, snakes may strike When these do not work, snakes may strike This occurs only when a snake feels threatened and has no other option to protect itself This occurs only when a snake feels threatened and has no other option to protect itself Cottonmouth Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake Eastern Hognose Snake Brown Watersnake

25 Conservation Many amphibians are in decline Many amphibians are in decline 32% of amphibians endangered versus 12% of birds or 23% of mammals 32% of amphibians endangered versus 12% of birds or 23% of mammals 43% of amphibian populations are declining 43% of amphibian populations are declining Few populations are known to be increasing Few populations are known to be increasing Red Salamander Eastern Kingsnake Bog Turtle Grey Tree Frog

26 Causes of Decline Habitat destruction Habitat destruction Disease Disease Pollution Pollution Over-exploitation Over-exploitation Climate change Climate change Invasive species Invasive species How many are human caused? How many are human caused?

27 What can you do? Enjoy finding and observing amphibians and reptiles Enjoy finding and observing amphibians and reptiles Don’t keep wild amphibians and reptiles as pets Don’t keep wild amphibians and reptiles as pets Don’t kill snakes Don’t kill snakes Make sure you know a poisonous species looks like before handling snakes, and NEVER touch or threaten a poisonous snake Make sure you know a poisonous species looks like before handling snakes, and NEVER touch or threaten a poisonous snake Don’t release any amphibian or reptile pet into the wild Don’t release any amphibian or reptile pet into the wild

28 Questions? Corn Snake


Download ppt "Amphibians and Reptiles: An Introduction to Herpetofauna Compiled by the Davidson College Herpetology Laboratory Eastern Hognose SnakeGreen Treefrog."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google