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Carnivorous Plants. Why be carnivorous? Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments.

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Presentation on theme: "Carnivorous Plants. Why be carnivorous? Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carnivorous Plants

2 Why be carnivorous?

3 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments

4 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N

5 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 6 different orders

6 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 6 different orders > 12 genera

7 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 6 different orders > 12 genera Evolved 6 times independently

8 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 6 different orders > 12 genera Evolved 6 times independently Also have >300 paracarnivorous spp

9 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 6 different orders > 12 genera Evolved 6 times independently Also have >300 paracarnivorous spp Described by Darwin (1875) Insectivorous Plants

10 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 5 different orders > 12 genera Evolved 6 times independently Also have >300 paracarnivorous spp Described by Darwin (1875) Insectivorous Plants Adaptation to nutrient

11 Carnivorous Plants Obtain nutrients in poor environments Often N > 600 spp in 5 different orders > 12 genera Evolved 6 times independently Also have >300 paracarnivorous spp Described by Darwin (1875) Insectivorous Plants Adaptation to nutrient\ Only if lots of light & water = bogs

12 Carnivorous Plants Why be carnivorous? Obtain nutrients in poor environments How to become carnivorous?

13 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey

14 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey mainly insects

15 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey mainly insects 2: digest prey

16 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey mainly insects 2: digest prey 3: absorb nutrients

17 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey mainly insects 2: digest prey 3: absorb nutrients 4: kill competing Bacteria & fungi

18 Carnivorous Plants How to become carnivorous? 1: catch prey mainly insects 2: digest prey 3: absorb nutrients 4: kill competing Bacteria & fungi How to avoid eating Pollinators?

19 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf.

20 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. evolved independently ≥ 4 x evolved independently ≥ 4 x

21 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. evolved independently ≥ 4 x evolved independently ≥ 4 x recently discovered a 2 liter recently discovered a 2 liter Pitcher in Phillipines

22 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. evolved independently ≥ 4 x evolved independently ≥ 4 x recently discovered a 2 liter recently discovered a 2 liter Pitcher in Phillipines Similar spp live in Indonesia Similar spp live in Indonesia ture=related ture=related ure=player_embedded#! ure=player_embedded#!

23 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. evolved independently ≥ 4 x evolved independently ≥ 4 x fuse leaves & alter shape to form fuse leaves & alter shape to form cup trapping rain and prey

24 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (e.g.pitcher plants) pitcher plantspitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. evolved independently ≥ 4 x evolved independently ≥ 4 x fuse leaves & alter shape to form fuse leaves & alter shape to form cup trapping rain and prey rely on bacteria for digestion rely on bacteria for digestion

25 Catching Prey fuse leaves & alter shape to form fuse leaves & alter shape to form cup trapping rain and prey rely on bacteria for digestion rely on bacteria for digestion Others protect opening Others protect opening

26 Catching Prey fuse leaves & alter shape to form fuse leaves & alter shape to form cup trapping rain and prey rely on bacteria for digestion rely on bacteria for digestion Others protect opening Others protect opening Add enzymes to cup solution Add enzymes to cup solution

27 Catching Prey fuse leaves & alter shape to form fuse leaves & alter shape to form cup trapping rain and prey rely on bacteria for digestion rely on bacteria for digestion Others protect opening Others protect opening Add enzymes to cup solution Add enzymes to cup solution Absorb cup surface Absorb cup surface

28 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage

29 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage Evolved independently ≥ 5 x

30 Catching Prey Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes Sessile glands absorb nutrients

31 Catching Prey Stalked glands secrete mucilage & enzymes Sessile glands absorb nutrients Have flowers on long stalks to avoid trapping pollinators

32 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia, but 214 spp

33 Catching Prey 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia bladders sealed w hinged doors expel ions bladders sealed w hinged doors expel ions

34 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water Osmosis creates vacuum Osmosis creates vacuum

35 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water Osmosis creates vacuum Osmosis creates vacuum Trigger door release vacuum when touched Trigger door release vacuum when touched

36 Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water Osmosis creates vacuum Osmosis creates vacuum Trigger door release vac when touched Trigger door release vac when touched Sucks prey into digestive bladder Sucks prey into digestive bladder

37 Bladder traps vacuum in prey: only Utricularia bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water bladders sealed w hinged doors expel water Osmosis creates vacuum Osmosis creates vacuum Trigger door release vac when touched Trigger door release vac when touched Sucks prey into digestive bladder Sucks prey into digestive bladder Flowers on long stalks Flowers on long stalks

38 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit

39 5 basic trapping mechanisms 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit chamber is easy to enter, hard to exit inward-pointing hairs inward-pointing hairs prevent escape

40 5 basic trapping mechanisms 1: Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf. 2:Flypaper traps (sundews) use a sticky mucilage mucilage 3: Bladder traps vacuum in prey 4: Lobster-pot traps trap prey 5: Snap traps use rapid leaf rapid leafrapid leaf Movements =channel

41 5 basic trapping mechanisms Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements rapid leaf Movementsrapid leaf Movements two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart stimuli

42 5 basic trapping mechanisms Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements rapid leaf Movementsrapid leaf Movements two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart stimuli Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential

43 5 basic trapping mechanisms Snap traps use rapid leaf Movements rapid leaf Movementsrapid leaf Movements two stimuli are required, 0.5 to 30 seconds apart stimuli Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that action potentialaction potential propagates to midrib cells These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth

44 5 basic trapping mechanisms Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave

45 5 basic trapping mechanisms Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave AP triggers switch

46 5 basic trapping mechanisms Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave AP triggers switch Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks

47 5 basic trapping mechanisms Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave AP triggers switch Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks Also digest leaf, resorb both

48 5 basic trapping mechanisms Touched trigger hair cells open channels, generating an action potential that propagates to midrib cells action potential action potential These respond by pumping out ions, resulting in rapid growth Open lobes are convex, Closed are concave AP triggers switch Seal to form stomach, fill w enzymes that digest prey (& leaf) w/in 1-2 weeks Also digest leaf, resorb Both Flowers on long stalk

49 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher

50 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher Resorb nutrients across pitcher surface

51 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher Resorb nutrients across pitcher Surface 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves

52 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher Resorb nutrients across pitcher Surface 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves Thigmotropism helps trap prey

53 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher Resorb nutrients across pitcher Surface 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves Thigmotropism helps trap prey Enzymes help digest prey

54 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher pump enzymes into pitcher 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers

55 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves, then pump enzymes into pitcher 2. Flypaper traps evolve from plants like tobacco that secrete goo on leaves 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers Added pitcher lid & mech for ion pumping, then opening on demand

56 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves 2. Flypaper traps 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers 4: Lobster-pot traps add Inward-facing trichomes to pitchers.

57 Evolution 1.Pitchers fuse leaves 2. Flypaper traps 3. Bladder traps may have evolved from aquatic pitchers 4: Lobster-pot traps add Inward-facing trichomes to pitchers. 5. Snap traps evolved from Fly-paper traps More extreme thigmonasty

58 Digestion Digest and resorb everything

59 Digestion Protect pollinators by making long stem separating flower from traps

60 Protecting from bacteria and fungi Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds

61 Protecting from bacteria and fungi Fill traps with anti-bacterial and antifungal compunds Source of new antibiotics!


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