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Presented by Calvin Li, Brian Jung and Vishnu Pillarisetti.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Calvin Li, Brian Jung and Vishnu Pillarisetti."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by Calvin Li, Brian Jung and Vishnu Pillarisetti

2 Coral Reefs: Physical Characteristics There are many physical characteristics native to different biomes, which help distinguish it from each other. Several of those aforementioned attributes are listed below: The optimal temperature is around 26-27°C, with the lowest accepted rate being approximately 18°C. As coral reefs are submerged, measuring rainfall is not an applicable factor for this environment. Types of organisms in this ecosystem include corals, grazing fish (i.e. parrotfish), sea urchins, sponges, algae, and groupers.

3 Coral Reefs: Ecosystem

4 Food Webs Several distinguished food webs in this ecosystem include: Sharks, which prey on barracudas, which pufferfish, which prey on coral, which depend on zooplankton. Moray eels, which eat parrotfish, which prey on coral, which depends on zooplankton. Sharks, which eat squid, which eat butterflyfish, which prey on coral, which depend on zooplankton, which depend on phytoplankton. Sponge, which preys on zooplankton, which depends on phytoplankton.

5 Scavengers Snails, starfishes, and various other animals are scavengers in the ecosystem.

6 Coral Reefs: Indicator/Keystone Species Butterflyfish: Shows a decline in the health of a reef, manifested by decreasing food; results in a decrease in the abundance and diversity of these species Larval assemblages of fish and other reef taxa: Their sensitivity, along with their position in the pelagic food web, make them excellent indicators of environmental perturbations Ectoparasites on coral reef fishes: Reveals deteriorating water quality when they increase in quantity Coelobites, Heterotrophic macroinvertebrates, etc.

7 Coral Reefs: Human Impact Coral mining from small-scale harvesting and industrial-scale mining are effects of human interaction with the coral reefs. In addition, dynamite fishing, mooring, and construction in this area takes its toll.

8 The Open Ocean

9 Open Ocean: Physical Characteristics One of the more complex and varied ecosystems, the open ocean is characterized by several distinct characteristics, as listed below: The temperature varies for such a diverse ecosystem, especially since the ocean involves several zones, some of which are not reached by sunlight and therefore have extremely low temperatures. The photic zone, the area which photosynthesis can occur, has temperatures ranging from 12 to 20 degrees Celsius. Rainfall, again for this environment, is a rather inapplicable factor.

10 Open Ocean: Physical Characteristics (Cont.) Types of organisms in this ecosystem include radiata, fish, cetacea, plankton, echinoderms, and various other organisms.

11 Food Web In the open ocean, there are many food chains, a few of which are highlighted in this presentation: Small whales prey on seals, which in turn feed on krill, which in turn prey on phytoplankton. Wreck fish prey on migrating fish and squid, which prey on midwater fish, which eat zooplankton, whose prey is phytoplankton. Polar bears feed on seals, which in turn feed on krill, whose prey is phytoplankton Sharks feed on scorpionfish, which eat hawkfish, which eat barnacles, which prey on zooplankton, whose prey is phytoplankton.

12 Food Web (Cont.) Several scavengers from the ocean biome include crabs, lobsters, shrimp, flounder, sleeper sharks, and other mollusks.

13 Keystone/Indicator Species Many indicator species of the ocean include fish, birds (i.e the Atlantic Puffin), and periphyton, a type of algae. These species indicate often biochemicals, global warming’s effects, new diseases, or just other various problems that affect the environment.

14 Human Impact Several human activities influence the ocean, notably pollution due to trash, sewage, storm drain, and oil spills. Sewage can act as a fertilizer, therefore spawning plankton blooms, which can be deadly to wildlife in the ocean. Another effect is deoxification, which lowers the amount of oxygen available to the marine animals.

15 Conclusion As you can see, the coral reefs and open oceans are diverse, interesting ecosystems that have plenty of physical characteristics, complex food webs, and keystone species. Unfortunately, humans also impact both in a detrimental manner, causing us to potentially lose these unique environments.

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