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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Community Ecology Chapter 20 Table of Contents Section 1 Species.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Community Ecology Chapter 20 Table of Contents Section 1 Species."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Community Ecology Chapter 20 Table of Contents Section 1 Species Interactions Section 2 Patterns in Communities

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Objectives Identify two types of predator adaptations and two types of prey adaptations. Identify possible causes and results of interspecific competition. Compare parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give one example of each.

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Predation Predation is an interaction in which one organism (the predator) captures and eats all or part of another individual organism (the prey).

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Predation, continued Predator Adaptations –Predators have adaptations to efficiently capture prey, whereas prey species have adaptations to avoid capture. A trait that makes an individual successful in its environment A variation that improves an individuals chance to survive and reproduce Nature changes species by selecting genentic traits!

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Predation, continued Adaptations in Animal Prey –Mimicry is an adaptation in which a species gains an advantage by resembling another species or object. Monarchs are distasteful Viceroy’s mimic monarchs

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Predation, continued Adaptations in Plant Prey –Many plants produce secondary compounds as a chemical defense.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Competition Competitive Exclusion –Competition may cause competitive exclusion, the elimination of one species in a community.

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 20 Effect of Competition on Two Species of Barnacles Section 1 Species Interactions

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 20 Warbler Foraging Zones Section 1 Species Interactions

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Symbiosis Parasitism –In parasitism, one species (the parasite) feeds on, but does not always kill, another species (the host).

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Symbiosis, continued Mutualism –In mutualism, both interacting species benefit.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Species Interactions Chapter 20 Symbiosis, continued Commensalism –In commensalism, one species benefits, and the other is not affected.

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Patterns in Communities Chapter 20 Successional Changes in Communities Ecological succession is a change in the species composition of a community over time.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Patterns in Communities Chapter 20 Successional Changes in Communities, continued Primary Succession –Primary succession is the assembly of a community on newly created habitat. –Primary succession occurs in areas that have been recently exposed to the elements and lack soil.

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Patterns in Communities Chapter 20 Successional Changes in Communities, continued Secondary Succession –Secondary succession is the change in an existing community following a disturbance. –Secondary succession occurs in areas where the original ecosystem has been cleared by a disturbance.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Patterns in Communities Chapter 20 The Complexity of Succession The traditional description of succession is that the community proceeds through a predictable series of stages until it reaches a stable end point, called the climax community. Primary succession typically proceeds from lichens and mosses to a climax community. Secondary succession typically proceeds from weeds to a climax community.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 20 Ecological Succession at Glacier Bay Section 2 Patterns in Communities

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1. A certain tropical tree has a fruit that is eaten by only one species of bats. As the bat digests the fruit, the seeds are made ready to sprout. When the bat excretes the wastes of the fruit, it drops seeds in new locations. Which of the following is the correct term for the relationship between the bat and the tree? A. predation B. mutualism C. competition D. commensalism Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1. A certain tropical tree has a fruit that is eaten by only one species of bats. As the bat digests the fruit, the seeds are made ready to sprout. When the bat excretes the wastes of the fruit, it drops seeds in new locations. Which of the following is the correct term for the relationship between the bat and the tree? A. predation B. mutualism C. competition D. commensalism Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following is a parasite? F. a lion hunting a zebra G. a deer grazing on grass H. a tick sucking blood from a dog J. a snake swallowing a bird’s egg Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following is a parasite? F. a lion hunting a zebra G. a deer grazing on grass H. a tick sucking blood from a dog J. a snake swallowing a bird’s egg Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Three species of birds forage for insects in the same tree. However, each species tends to forage in different parts of the tree. This pattern of foraging is best explained as an adaptation to which of the following relationships? A. predation B. mutualism C. competition D. commensalism Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Three species of birds forage for insects in the same tree. However, each species tends to forage in different parts of the tree. This pattern of foraging is best explained as an adaptation to which of the following relationships? A. predation B. mutualism C. competition D. commensalism Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use the map below to answer question 4. The map shows two islands. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. What can you infer about the number of species on each of these islands? F. Island A has more species. G. Island B has more species. H. Island A and Island B will have the same number of species. J. Both islands will have fewer species than islands that are located farther north. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. What can you infer about the number of species on each of these islands? F. Island A has more species. G. Island B has more species. H. Island A and Island B will have the same number of species. J. Both islands will have fewer species than islands that are located farther north. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 5. predator : prey :: herbivore : A. carnivore B. plant C. parasite D. predation Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 5. predator : prey :: herbivore : A. carnivore B. plant C. parasite D. predation Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use the graph below to answer question 6. The shading in the graph indicates the frequency with which a certain bird species obtains prey, by prey size and location. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. Which of the following statements is best supported by this graph? F. Most often, the bird eats insects. G. Most often, the bird nests above ground. H. Most often, the bird finds prey at ground level. J. Most often, the bird eats prey that is between 3 and 5 mm long. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. Which of the following statements is best supported by this graph? F. Most often, the bird eats insects. G. Most often, the bird nests above ground. H. Most often, the bird finds prey at ground level. J. Most often, the bird eats prey that is between 3 and 5 mm long. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response Some plants produce chemicals that are irritating or poisonous to some animals. Explain the role of these adaptations in an ecological community. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued Some plants produce chemicals that are irritating or poisonous to some animals. Explain the role of these adaptations in an ecological community. Answer: Secondary compounds are defensive chemicals synthesized by plants to prevent plants from being eaten. Strychnine and nicotine are two examples. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Extended Response Base your answers to parts A & B on the information below. The gradual, sequential change in species in an area is called ecological succession. Part A Describe the stages of primary succession. Part B Compare primary succession and secondary succession.

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 20 Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A Primary succession starts with the exposure of bare land. Lichens colonize the rock. Decaying lichens as well as minerals from the rock lead to soil formation. Soil leads to colonization by pioneer species, such as moss and weeds. Large plants, such as shrubs and trees, replace pioneer species. Various trees become dominant, and succession ends with a mature forest. Part B Primary succession occurs when bare rock is exposed by geological events, such as island formation or glacier retreat. Secondary succession occurs after a disturbance clears away an existing community, but the soil remains intact.


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