Presentation on theme: "Ecosystems, Biomes, and Climate JEOPARDY!! Species’ Interactions and Response to Disturbances (Communities) Populations’ Dynamics and Growth Weather and."— Presentation transcript:
Ecosystems, Biomes, and Climate JEOPARDY!! Species’ Interactions and Response to Disturbances (Communities) Populations’ Dynamics and Growth Weather and Climate Climate and Biomes Potpourri 10 20 30 40 50
10 10 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances Define and give two examples of resource partitioning and explain how it can increase species diversity.
10 *Resource partitioning occurs when species competing for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to use shared resources at different times, in different ways, or in different places. *Some insect-eating bird species reduce competition by feeding in different portions of certain spruce trees and by feeding on different insect species. *Resource partitioning allows species to avoid niche overlap. Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances
20 20 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances Describe three ways in which predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey and three ways in which prey species can avoid their predators.
20 20 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances *Some ways that predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey include camouflage, chemical warfare, ability to fly faster than the prey, and better vision. *Some ways in which prey species can avoid their predators include camouflage, protective shells, chemical warfare and a highly developed sense of sight or smell that alerts them to the presence of predators.
30 30 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances Define and give an example of coevolution..
30 30 Ch 8 Aquatic Biodiversity **Coevolution occurs when populations of two different species interact in such a way over a long period of time; changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other. Such changes can help both sides become more competitive, or avoid or reduce competition. *An example is bees and flowers or bats and moths.
40 40 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances Define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism and give an example of each.
40 40 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances *Parasitism occurs when one organism (the parasite) feeds on another organism (the host), usually by living on or in the host. An example is tick to human. *Mutualism is an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food, shelter, or some other resource. An example is bee to flower. *Commensalism is an interaction that benefits one species but has little, if any, effect on the other. An example is epiphyte to tree.
50 50 Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances Distinguish between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession and give an example of each.
50 *Primary succession involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystem or no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem. Examples include bare rock exposed by a retreating glacier (Figure 5-10), newly cooled lava, an abandoned highway or parking lot, and a newly created shallow pond or reservoir. *Secondary succession occurs as a series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment. This type of succession begins in an area where an ecosystem has been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, but some soil or bottom sediment remains. Candidates for secondary succession include abandoned farmland, burned or cut forests, heavily polluted streams, and land that has been flooded. Species Interactions and Response to Disturbances
10 Why do most populations live in clumps? Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
Most populations live in clumps because they cluster around resources, they have a better chance of getting resources in a clump, living in groups provides some protection from predators, and living in packs gives some predators a better chance of catching prey. 10 Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
20 What is a population’s age structure and what are three major age groups called? Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
* * Age structure refers to the number or percentage of males and females in young, middle, and older age groups. A diagram of the age structure of the human population might show the percentages of males and females in the total population in age categories: pre-reproductive (ages 0–14); reproductive (ages 15–44); and post-reproductive (age 45 and older). 20 Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
30 Distinguish between the environmental resistance and the carrying capacity of an environment, and use these concepts to explain why there are always limits to population growth in nature. Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
* * * * Environmental resistance is the combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population. It largely determines a population’s carrying capacity: the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely. *The growth rate of a population decreases as its size nears the carrying capacity of its environment because resources such as food, water, and space begin to dwindle.. 30 Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
40 Define population density and explain how some limiting factors can become more important as a population’s density increases. Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
* *Population density is the number of individuals in a population found within a defined area or volume. *Limiting factors become more important as population density increases because things like diseases can spread quickly through dense populations. 40 Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
50 Define and give an example of a population crash. Explain why humans are not exempt from nature’s population controls.. Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
50 **A population may suffer a dieback, or population crash, if it uses up its resource supplies and temporarily overshoots, or exceeds, the carrying capacity of the environment. The reindeer population crashed when they were introduced onto a small island in the Bering Sea. **Humans are not exempt from population crashes when they have used up their resources, as seen with the Irish potato famine. Speaking on a global scale, there is no place for us to come from (immigration) or go to (emigration). That means population change is limited to births minus deaths. To put it in the crudest of terms, we must either reduce the number of births or increase the number of deaths in order to stabilize or reduce our population. If we choose not to undertake that change, nature will do so as we exceed our carrying capacity. Populations’ Dynamics and Growth
10 Weather and Climate Distinguish between weather and climate.
**Weather is a set of physical conditions of the lower atmosphere such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and other factors in a given area over a period of hours or days. **Climate is an area’s general pattern of atmospheric conditions over periods ranging from at least three decades to thousands of years. 10 Weather and Climate
20 Why are oceans responsible for the earth’s temperature and climate? Weather and Climate
Land quickly absorbs and reflects solar energy back to space, whereas bodies of water hold on to solar energy and release it back slowly to space. This helps to keep warmth on our planet, which is distributed by ocean currents. 20 Weather and Climate
30 Explain how convection circulates warm air and cold air in the atmosphere. Weather and Climate
30 Air at the equator is warmer and less dense, so it rises in the atmosphere north and south away from the equator. As it rises, it starts to cool, become more dense, and sinks back to the equator..
40 Explain how convection circulates deep currents and surface currents. Weather and Climate Weather and Climate
40 Weather and Climate Cold, deep currents along the ocean floor are eventually drawn up to become warm surface currents carried by the wind. When cold currents reach the surface, it is warmed by the sun and becomes a warm surface current.
50 What do the circuit movement of rising warm and sinking cold air form in the atmosphere? How many are there? Weather and Climate
50 Weather and Climate Weather and Climate convection cells--- there are 6 giant convection cells
10 Climate and Biomes What is the rain shadow effect and how can it lead to the formation of deserts?
10 Climate and Biomes **rain shadow effect is a reduction of rainfall and loss of moisture from the landscape on the side of mountains facing away from prevailing surface winds. Warm, moist air in onshore winds loses most of its moisture as rain and snow on the windward slopes of a mountain range. This leads to semi-arid and arid conditions on the leeward side of the mountain range and the land beyond.
20 Explain why there are three major types of each of the major biomes (deserts, grasslands, and forests). Climate and Biomes
20 The three major biomes are determined by the amount of precipitation. Differences in climate, mostly from average annual precipitation and temperature, lead to the formation of tropical (hot), temperate (moderate), and polar (cold) deserts, grasslands, and forests.
30 Climate and Biomes What type of information does weather give you? List all four.
30 Climate and Biomes Precipitation Temperature Humidity Wind
40 Climate and Biomes What four things determine a place’s climate?
40 Climate and Biomes Wind Ocean currents MountainsLatitude.
50 Climate and Biomes What are the three major climate zones?
10 My name is Bond, Ionic Bond; Taken, not shared! Genetics 2
10 Population Growth From: Mariano Cecowski Q: if both a bear in Yosemite and one in Alaska fall into the water which one disolves faster? A: The one in Alaska because it is HIJKLMNO
10 Population Growth Alimentary: What Sherlock Holmes said to Dr. Watson. Urinate: What a nurse would say if a patient asked her what room he's in. Urine - The opposite of "You're out!" Benign: What we want when we are eight. Intestine - Currently taking an exam CARDIOLOGY: advanced study of poker playing TERMINAL ILLNESS: getting sick at the airport
10 Potpourri List the defining features of the atmospheric layers.
10 Potpourri **temperatures **air pressure **solar energy **gases in layer
40 Potpourri Describe the exploding white-tailed deer population problem in the United States and discuss options for dealing with it.
40 Potpourri There are 25– 30 million white- tailed deer in the United States. Laws to protect deer have restricted hunting and natural predators such as wolves and mountain lions have been nearly eliminated. During the last 50 years, large numbers of Americans have moved into the wooded habitat of deer and provided them with flowers, garden crops, and other plants they like to eat. In some forests, they are consuming native ground cover vegetation and allowing nonnative weed species to take over. Deer also spread Lyme disease to humans. Each year there are 1.5 million deer– vehicle collisions which injure at least 14,000 people and kill at least 200. Options for dealing with the deer overpopulation include the following: Changing hunting regulations to allow killing of more female deer. Since it is too dangerous to allow widespread hunting with guns in populated communities, hire licensed archers who use bows and arrows to help reduce deer numbers. However, animal activists argue that this is cruel and inhumane treatment. Scare off deer by spraying the scent of deer predators or rotting deer meat or using electronic equipment that emits high-frequency sounds, which humans cannot hear. Surround their gardens with high fencing. Such deterrents may protect one area, but cause the deer to seek food in someone else’s yard or garden. Deer can be trapped and moved from one area to another. This is expensive and must be repeated whenever deer move back into an area. Put deer on birth control by shooting females with darts loaded with a contraceptive.
50 Potpourri In terms of stability of ecosystems, distinguish between inertia (persistence) and resilience and give an example of each.
50 Potpourri There are two aspects of stability in living systems: *One is inertia, or persistence: the ability of a living system, such as a grassland or a forest, to survive moderate disturbances, such as mild drought. *A second factor is resilience: the ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a moderate disturbance, such as a wildfire.