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C. Models 1. Pathogens

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C. Models 1. Pathogens R = (b/g)S b = rate of transmission g = recovery time (inverse of infectious period)

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C. Models 2. Lotka-Volterra Models Goal - create a model system in which there are oscillations of predator and prey populations that are out-of-phase with one another. Basic Equations: a. Prey Equation: dV/dt = rV - cVP where rV defines the maximal, geometric rate c = predator foraging efficiency: % eaten P = number of predators V= number of prey, so PV = number of encounters and cPV = number of prey killed (consumed) So, the formula describes the maximal growth rate, minus the number of prey individuals lost by predation.

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Number of Prey (V)

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C. Models 2. Lotka-Volterra Models b. Predator The Equation: dP/dt = a(cPV) - dP where CPV equals the number of prey consumed, and a = the rate at which food energy is converted to offspring. So, a(cVP) = number of predator offspring produced. d = mortality rate, and P = # of predators, so dP = number of carnivores dying. So, the equation boils down to the birth rate (determined by energy "in" and conversion rate to offspring) minus the death rate.

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Basic Equations: 1. Prey 2. Predator 3. Dynamics

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V. Dynamics of Consumer-Resource Interactions A. Predators can limit the growth of prey populations B. Oscillations are a Common Pattern C. Models D. Lab Experiments 1. Gause P. caudatum (prey) and Didinium nasutum (predator)

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In initial experiments, Paramecium populations would increase, followed by a pulse of Didinium, and then they would crash.

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P. caudatum (prey) and Didinium nasutum (predator) In initial experiments, Paramecium populations would increase, followed by a pulse of Didinium, and then they would crash. He added glass wool to the bottom, creating a REFUGE that the predator did not enter.

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He induced oscillations by adding Paramecium as 'immigrants'

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D. Laboratory Experiments 1. Gause 2. Huffaker six-spotted mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus) was prey - SSM Predatory mite (Typhlodromus occidentalis) was predator - PM

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D. Laboratory Experiments 1. Gause 2. Huffaker 3. Holyoak and Lawler-1996

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Holyoak and Lawler-1996 Used a bacteriovore ciliate, Colpidium striatum as the prey and our old friend Didinium nasutum as the predator.

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3. Holyoak and Lawler-1996 Set up replicate 30mL bottles, linked together by tubes, and single flask systems.

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D. Complexities and Applications 2. Multiple State States Consider a Type III functional response, where the predation rate is highest at intermediate prey densities. V Birth rate Predation Rate

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D. Complexities and Applications 2. Multiple State States Consider a Type III functional response, where the predation rate is highest at intermediate prey densities. V Birth rate Predation Rate

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