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Feeding: Fishes as predators Feeding & Predation cycles Adaptations of predators.

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Presentation on theme: "Feeding: Fishes as predators Feeding & Predation cycles Adaptations of predators."— Presentation transcript:

1 Feeding: Fishes as predators Feeding & Predation cycles Adaptations of predators

2 Predator – Prey arms race Co-evolution of predatory and escape mechanisms –Morphological adaptations –Behavioral adaptations –Ecological adaptations “ there is no perfect predatory nor perfect escape tactic”

3 Predation Cycle Search Pursuit Attack Capture (Feeding Cycle) Handling of Prey (Feeding Cycle)

4 Feeding Cycle Biting Sucking Chewing Swallowing

5 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Vision (Water column predators) Herring & Anchovies Tunas & Billfishes Nocturnal Plankton feeders

6 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Vision (Water column predators) Herring & Anchovies Tunas & Billfishes Nocturnal Plankton feeders –Olfaction Elasmobranchs Moray eels

7 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Vision (Water column predators) Herring & Anchovies Tunas & Billfishes Nocturnal Plankton feeders –Olfaction Elasmobranchs Moray eels –Hearing Elasmobranchs (low frecuency sounds Hz)

8 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Taste / Touch (benthic feeders) Barbels (Catfishes, Goatfish, Croakers, etc…) Modified fin rays (Sea robins, etc…)

9 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Taste / Touch (benthic feeders) Barbels (Catfishes, Goatfish, Croakers, etc…) Modified fin rays (Sea robins, etc…) –Electroreception Passive (Elasmobranchs) Active (Elephantfish, Gimnotids, etc…)

10 Search Active Search (Use of locomotion while employing senses to detect prey) -Taste / Touch (benthic feeders) Barbels (Catfishes, Goatfish, Croakers, etc…) Modified fin rays (Sea robins, etc…) –Electroreception Passive (Elasmobranchs) Active (Elephantfish, Gimnotids, etc…) Speculation Search (‘try and see’ chicken tactic…) usually occurs with attendant species

11 Search Passive Search – Camouflage Predators (No use of locomotion) -Benthic Stalkers (Flounders, Scorpionfish, etc…) Vision Electrorecepcion

12 Search Passive Search – Camouflage Predators (No use of locomotion) -Benthic Stalkers (Flounders, Scorpionfish, etc…) Vision Electrorecepcion –Open Water Stalkers (gars, pike, trumpetfish) Vision

13 Pursuit High Speed chases -Specific to capture fast prey Open Water – Speed –Lamnid sharks, Tuna, Marlin… Benthic – Fast Braking and turning –Salmon, Striped Bass, Groupers…

14 Pursuit High Speed Chases -Specific to capture fast prey Open Water – Speed –Lamnid sharks, Tuna, Marlin… Benthic – Fast Braking and turning –Salmon, Striped Bass, Groupers… Fast Start Interception –Convergent evolution of body shape –Pike, Barracuda, Gars, Needlefish…

15 Pursuit High Speed chases -Specific to capture fast prey Open Water – Speed –Lamnid sharks, Tuna, Marlin… Benthic – Fast Braking and turning –Salmon, Striped Bass, Groupers… Fast Start Performance –Convergent evolution of body shape –Pike, Barracuda, Gars, Needlefish… Luring –Lophiiformes (fin rays), stargazers (buccal lures), Haplochromis livingstoni (death feigning)...

16 Attack, Capture & Handling Directly related to jaw development Feeding Cycle (Biting, Sucking, Chewing, Swallowing) Mouth Positioning –Superior –Terminal –Inferior

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18 Attack, Capture & Handling Directly related to jaw development Feeding Cycle (Biting, Sucking, Chewing, Swallowing) Mouth Positioning –Superior –Terminal –Inferior Suction Feeding (Jaw Protrusion) –Premaxillae, Maxillae & Lower Mandible –Preparation, Expansion, Compression, Recovery Pharyngeal Jaw –Handling / Chewing & Swallowing

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20 Extreme Jaw Protrusion 65% Head Length

21 Attack, Capture & Handling Overtake or Interception of prey Suction of Prey –Fastest movements if mobile prey (example: Frogfish expand mouth 14-fold in 6 milliseconds) –Slower movement if prey with limited movement

22 Attack, Capture & Handling Overtake or Interception of prey Suction of Prey –Fastest movements if mobile prey (example: Frogfish expand mouth 14-fold in 6 milliseconds) –Slower movement if prey with limited movement Filtering of prey –Swim with open mouths, filter planktonic prey

23 Filtering of Prey

24 Cetorhinidae Basking shark Cetorhinus maximus Filtering of Prey

25 Attack, Capture & Handling Overtake or Interception of prey Suction of Prey –Fastest movements if mobile prey (example: Frogfish expand mouth 14-fold in 6 milliseconds) –Slower movement if prey with limited movement Filtering of prey –Swim with open mouths, filter planktonic prey Prey Immobilization –Marlin, swordfish, sawfish (upper jaw extension) –Thresher Shark (tail) –Torpedo Rays (Electrical discharge) –Hammerhead Shark (head)


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