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Introduction Background Information & Previous Literature Problem Statement & Hypothesis Experimental Procedure Analysis & Interpretation of Data Sources.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Background Information & Previous Literature Problem Statement & Hypothesis Experimental Procedure Analysis & Interpretation of Data Sources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Background Information & Previous Literature Problem Statement & Hypothesis Experimental Procedure Analysis & Interpretation of Data Sources of Experimental Error Conclusions Applications & Further Research Photograph courtesy of C. Younger

2 Praying Mantids Highly evolved insects  Mobile head  Camouflaged Generally ambush predators but can stalk prey When threatened they enter a defensive stance with forelegs raised to their heads and curled abdomen Undergo incomplete metamorphosis (i.e. molting) Orchid Mantis Chinese Praying Mantis Spiny Flower Mantis Photograph courtesy of Dan Lieberman Photograph courtesy of Bob Jenson Photograph courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society

3 Basic Anatomy Tibia Femur Photographs courtesy of Oklahoma State University Photograph courtesy of The Praying Mantids Editor, F.R. Prete Image courtesy of EnchantedLearning.com

4 Mantid Vision Binocular vision: the ability to produce a focused image of the same object simultaneously on the retinas of both eyes  Perception of distance  3-d vision Compound Eye  Immovable  Ommatidia: numerous light receptive cells Outer cuticle Retinal Cells Rhabdom  Acute Zone: central portion of eye where vision is most keen; also called the visual fovea Photograph courtesy of The Praying Mantids; Editor, F.R. Prete

5 RhabdomCuticle Forward Looking Acute Zone Crystalline ConeCorneal Lens Photograph courtesy of The Praying Mantids; Editor, F.R. Prete Image courtesy of BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES

6 Predatory Behavior Prey capture sequence  Visual recognition  Head saccades  Peering movements  Strike  Lunge Depends on…  Prey size  Prey speed  Prey orientation  Prey contrast with the background Photograph courtesy of The Praying Mantids; Editor, F.R. Prete

7 Experimental Design 2 boxes (9 x 6.25 x 5.5 inches)  1 with an all black background on 5 sides  1 with an all white background on 5 sides Step 1 Introduce mantid  Allow 20 minutes for acclimation Anesthetize 5 fruit flies  Place in refrigerator (40 °F ) for 20 minutes Step 2 Introduce 5 wingless fruit flies  Through a funnel inserted in the “x” shaped incision in the center of the netting Step 3 Record time it takes for mantid to catch 1 fruit fly with a stopwatch  Start of timing: introduction of all 5 flies  End of timing: first successful prey capture or if no capture had occurred after 10 minutes Step 4

8 Thank You! “One of the contributors to this book quipped in an e- mail message that ‘rearing mantises has to be one of the most frustrating jobs – at least sometimes.’ He was right.” – Fredrick Prete, coeditor of The Praying Mantids Are there any questions? Photograph courtesy of Arlene Ripley


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