Presentation on theme: "Predation – Chapter 13. Types of Predators Herbivores – animals that prey on green plants or their seed and fruits. –Plants are usually damaged but not."— Presentation transcript:
Types of Predators Herbivores – animals that prey on green plants or their seed and fruits. –Plants are usually damaged but not killed Carnivores – animals that eat herbivores or other carnivores. Insect Parasitoids – lay eggs on or near host insect, which is subsequently killed and eaten. –Phorid fly Parasites – plants or animals that live on or in their hosts and depend on their host for nutrition. Cannibalism – predator and prey are the same species
P1P1 P2P2 H P1P1 P2P2 H1H1 H2H2 Indirect Competition via exploitation competition Indirect Competition without competition Predators can interact with one another by competition. Predator populations may also be affected by indirect effects.
Three Important Predation Processes 1)Predation on a population may restrict distribution or abundance of the prey If affected animal is pest – then good If affected animal is valuable – then bad 2)Predation is another major type of interaction (like competition) that can influence the organization of communities. 3)Predation is a major selective force. Many adaptations we see in organisms, such as warning coloration, have their explanation in predator- prey coevolution
Mathematical Models of Predation – discrete generations Small prey population will increase without predation according to: N t+1 = [1.0 – B(z t )]N t If prey abundance is determined by predator abundance, then the whole predator population must eat proportionately more prey when prey densities are high. We can subtract a term from the above equation: N t+1 = [1.0 – B(z t )]N t - CN t P t P t = population size of predators in generation t C = a constant measuring the efficiency of the predator Accounts for predation
Predator Population Growth P t+1 = QN t P t If we assume that the reproductive rate of predators is dependent on prey abundance, then: P t = population size of predator N = population size of prey t = generation number Q = a constant measuring the efficiency of utilization of prey for reproduction for predators
N t+1 = [1.0 – B(N eq )]N t With predators absent and population low, prey growth is approximated by: Rearrange equation: = [1.0 – B(N eq )] NtNt N t+1 R = R = maximum finite rate of prey population increase When prey are at equilibrium and predators are scarce, predator growth is approximated by: P t+1 = QN t P t or S = P t+1 PtPt = QN eq S = maximum finite rate of predator population increase
Example: For Prey; If R = 1.5; N eq = 100; absolute vale of B = 0.005; C = 0.5: N t+1 = [1.0 – 0.005(z t )]N t – 0.5N t P t N t+1 = [1.0 – B(z t )]N t - CN t P t Prey population size For Predator; If S = 2: S = QN eq 2 = Q(100) Q= 0.02 Then P t+1 = 0.02N t P t Predator population size We predict a predator-prey population cycle
Lynx and Snowshoe Hare Both lynx and snowshoe hare populations oscillate through a 9-year period.
How Do Predators Respond to a Change in Prey Density? Numerical Response – an increase in number due to an increase in reproduction. Aggregative Response – Predators tend to aggregate where the prey is at a high density. Functional Response – the number of prey eaten by an individual predator increases as the number of prey increases. Developmental Response – individual predators eat more or fewer prey as the predator grows.
Aggregate Response Predators tend to aggregate where the prey is at a high density:
Three Functional Responses Type 1 – Prey consumed increases with prey density. Type 2 – Prey consumed increases rapidly with prey density, then levels off. Type 3 – Prey consumed follows a logistic pattern as prey density increases.
Optimal Foraging Theory -predicting behavior of predators in choosing prey Assume the predator makes a conscience decision when selecting prey when simultaneously faced with two or more choices. Assume the predator will maximize the net rate of energy gain while foraging. More energy is better for the predator because it will be able to meet its metabolic demands and still have energy for: –Defending a territory –Fighting –Reproducing –Moving
Maximizing Daily Energy Uptake Search time – the time it takes a predator to search for a prey. Handling time – the time it takes a predator to kill and eat a single prey. Energy Value – the amount of energy available to the predator from the prey. Profitability – the amount of surplus energy a predator gets from a prey: Profitability = Handling Time Energy value h E =
If a predator has two prey types to choose from. Prey 1 is large and has a greater handling time than the smaller prey 2. However, assume the profitability is greater for prey 1, such that: h1h1 E1E1 h2h2 E2E2 > If a predator encounters a prey it must decide to eat it or ignore it. Two rules: 1.If the predator encounters prey 1, it should always eat it because it is the most profitable. 2.If it encounters prey 2, it should eat it if the gain from eating it exceeds the gain from rejecting it and searching for a more profitable prey 1.
Define S 1 as the average search time to find a prey 1 individual then: S 1 + h 1 E1E1 h2h2 E2E2 > This model suggests that a predator will consume prey species 2 if the search time for prey 1 is large (energetically costly). Predators will maximize profitability.
Size of Prey - Optimal Foraging Theory Predators tend to eat medium size prey –If the prey is too small, the energy value is not great enough even though the handling time is small –If the prey is too large, the handling time may be so great that it consumes too much of the prey’s energy value –Medium size prey have maximum profitability
Generalists predators tend to stabilize prey numbers –Once a prey population gets too small, the predator will feed on something else –If a prey population becomes very abundant, predators will feed on them Specialist predators tend to cause instability in prey numbers –Because a specialists feeds on only one species, the predator-prey populations tend to oscillate (lynx-snowshoe hare).
Evolution of Predator-Prey Systems Coevolution – evolutionary change in two or more interacting species. –For this chapter, the coevolution of predator and prey Prey that are best able to escape predators are strongly selected for. –Those that get caught die Predators that are better able to catch prey are selected for. –If a predator misses a prey, it only loses its meal, not its life
Do Predators Only Eat The Weak? Prey SpeciesCapture Difficulty % failed attacks % substandard Eastern ChipmunkEasy728 Cottontail RabbitModerate8221 Gray SquirrelHard8833 Predators do tend to capture more substandard prey of difficult to catch species, but not necessarily easy to catch species. Evaluation of prey quality in predation by a trained red-tailed hawk.
Anti-predator Defense Strategies Warning Coloration – widespread correlation between conspicuous coloration (usually red or some other bright color) and the presence of aversive qualities. –If a predator samples one from a group and decides that it is not a good prey, then the rest are protected. –Some prey species have evolved to mimic dangerous animals Group Living – Safety in numbers. –More eyes can lead to early detection of predators. –If prey are not much smaller than predator, the prey can gang-up on the predator. –Predator may become confused when the prey group flees in several directions.