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Prey Capture Behavior Jeffrey Guertin & Amber McCammon.

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Presentation on theme: "Prey Capture Behavior Jeffrey Guertin & Amber McCammon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prey Capture Behavior Jeffrey Guertin & Amber McCammon

2 Study Methods Anatomical studies Biomechanical modeling of feeding apparatus Cineradiography Electromoyography High-speed photography Observation

3 Skeletal Anatomy of Fish

4 Ancestral Sharks - Amphistylic Palatoquadrate articulates with the postorbital process of the braincase (as does the hyomandibula) and the ethmoid part of the braincase.

5 Modern Galean Sharks - Hyostylic Palatoquadrate hangs from the hyomandibula and the ethmoid part of the braincase. Little or no ligamentous attachment to Skull ~ decoupled visceral arches

6 Batoid - Euhystylic No cranial-palatoquadrate articulation Hyomandibula sole support Hyoid arch broken - no connection to ceratohyal Cranial muscles control hyoid and lower jaw depression “Hydrodynamic tongue” xxxxxxxxxx x x

7 Advantage of Jaw Protrusion Fierce suction develops  Mouth volume - water and prey forced into mouth Extension of bite, more efficient bites & manipulation of prey ~ Assist in jaw closure

8 Structure and Function of the Teeth Seizing/grasping ~ small, multiple rows of lateral cusplets Tearing ~ long & pointed w/ narrow cusps Cutting ~ bladelike, one fully erect functional row Crushing ~ low, cutting edges w/ bluntly rounded apices Grinding ~ imbricated flattened teeth that form dental plate

9 # of tooth rows varies Homodont teeth are rare Replacement rate species specific Different replacement rates - species and seasonality Sexual heterodonty in many elasmobranchs Aetobatus narinari - lower jaw teeth move anteriorly out of the crushing zone and remain attached to the tooth plate to form a spadelike appendage used to dig up prey items. Structure and Function of the Teeth © Cathleen Bester

10 Senses useful in Prey Capture Olfaction: detect 1ppb, ~ important than sight & sound Shark repellents don’t work in combination with food Gustation: Taste papillae - epithelial lining of mouth & pharynx. on roof than on floor Sight: light & movement sensitive cones ~ see in color Tapetum lucidum Pupil can dilate and contract Clear water ~ 15 m Royal Cornwall Museum

11 Senses useful in Prey Capture Sound: attracted to low-frequency pulsed sounds ~25 to 100 Hz, distances as great as 250 m (820 ft.). Lateral line: senses low-frequency vibrations - distance perception directional water flow. Ampullae of Lorenzini: sense bioelectrical fields in final stages of prey capture. Sensory pit: ~ sense organ not olfactory

12 Prey Capture Methods Ram Feeding Biting Pin & Pivot Fish Marine Mammals John Harding

13 .. Functional Morphology Elasmobranchs Specialized for Ram Prey Capture Large mouth Large teeth

14 Prey Capture Methods Suction Filter Feeding Benthic invertebrates Fish Plankton Stephen Frink John Harding

15 Stephen Frink Functional Morphology Elasmobranchs Specialized for Suction Prey Capture Small mouth Small teeth Mouth enclosed Rapid buccal expansion

16 Feeding Prey Capture Manipulation/processing bites Hydraulic transport Swallowing methods not fully understood Charles Maxwell

17 Capture Behavior Speculation Ambushing Stalking Lure Scavenge The Scourge-VIMAS

18 Forage Tactics Solitary Aggregations Cooperative herding Feeding Frenzies Not necessarily cooperative foraging - attractive site

19 Feeding Location and Prey Capture Surface feeding Above or below surface head raise Continuous ram Pulsatile suction arkbroad.htm Go to

20 Feeding Location and Prey Capture Mid-water feeding Head-on approach Side roll approach Bite and spit Filter

21 Feeding Location and Prey Capture Bottom feeding Attack and stun Benthivorous Biting Suction tch?v=68TDbKX4-6o Go to

22 Future Studies of Elasmobranch Prey Capture Behavior Rays & Skates Olfactory response Mechanics of cutting Feeding mechanism - jaw protrusion New techniques for functional morphologists and behavioral ecologists Electromyography High-speed photography Pressure displacement measurements

23 References: Carrier, J.C., Musick, J.A., Heithaus, M.R., 2004. Biology of sharks and their relatives. CRC Press, pp. 165-202. Chapman, D.D., Gruber, S.H., 2002. A further observation of the prey-handling behavior of the great hammerhead shark, Sphyrna mokarran: predation upon the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari. Bulletin of Mar. Sci. 70(3): 947-952. Compagno, L.J.V., 1988. Sharks of the order Carcharhiniformes. Princeton University Press, pp. 64-68. Dean, M.N., Wilga, C.D., Summers, A. P., 2005. Eating without hands or tongue: specialization, elaboration and the evolution of prey processing mechanisms in cartilaginous fishes. Biol. Lett. 1, 357- 361. Ferry-Graham, L.A., 1998. Effects of prey size and mobility on prey- capture kinematics in leopard sharks Triakis semifasciata. The J. of Exp. Biol. 201, 2433-2444. Gilbert, P.W., 1963. Sharks and survival. D.C. heath and Co., pp. 255-282. Hamlett, W. C., 1999. Sharks, skates, and rays-the biology of elasmobranch fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 110.pp.107-110. Humann, P., Deloach, N., 2003. Reef fish behavior, Florida, Caribbean, Bahamas. New World Publications, Inc., 300-309.

24 Questions?

25 .johneasleyStephen Frink Hooklessthejohnharding.comBait.jpg

26 elasmodiver National geo

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