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Predatory Publications

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1 Predatory Publications
بلاوکەری ڕاوچی الناشر الصیاد Saleem Saaed Qader MBChB, MD, MSc, MPH, PhD, SBGS Consultant General Surgeon, Lecturer General Director, Medical Research Centre, Hawler Medical University Department of Surgery, Rizgary Teaching Hospital Department of Surgery, Medical College, Hawler Medical University TMC Oct 2014

2 In nature one species of animal feeds on another, which in turn feeds on other things
The first species is called the predator and the second is called the prey The predator can destroy all the prey What actually happens in nature is that a cycle develops where at some time the prey may be abundant and the predators fewness Sharks appear to be a major threat to fish ڕاوچی و نێچیر

3 Publication Why do we publish? Visibility and Communication Tradition?
Religious Disciplinary requirements? Critical dialogues? University requirements? Love of writing?

4 Factors to be considered for publication:
Impact factors International reach Indexed? Where? Openly accessible? Readership numbers Subject appropriateness

5 Types of publishing Range of publishing options: Conference proceedings Media articles Book reviews Journal articles Book chapters Books Reports Policy papers ... etc Sole authored and co-authored

6 What matters in the university today?
Securing employment: Teaching and research the norm for academics Institutional reputation ... Nationally/Internationally Personal reputation ... Nationally/Internationally Funding ??? (not in our system) Ranking of journals/assessments of research Collaboration

7 Distribution Models for Published Research
1. Subscription (business) model (traditional) Free to authors, but journals are only available through a subscription (personal or library) Can be print, online, or both )now mostly online) Online journals are now licensed instead of sold Libraries often license many journals at once as part of a package from the publisher, called “Big Deals” Some subscriptions can be very expensive

8 2. Open access models (New)
Gratis (Free to Read) Libre (Free to Build upon) A. Gold (author-pays model) Author charged upon acceptance of a manuscript The fee is called the “article processing charge” or APC Advantage: free distribution of research Disadvantage: Authors must pay, and predatory publishers poisoning the model B. Green (Self-archiving model) C. Platinum (No author fees, the costs are covered by the benevolence of others, e.g. through volunteer work, donations, subsidies, grants, etc.)

9 Open access models Free to read, reuse, revise, remix, redistribute, download, copy and print articles and other material Easy to discover/harvest by both humans & computers Content automatically harvested by aggregators Data and narrative integrated to the widest extent possible Community peer-review and rapid publication Easy and efficient communication with authors and reviewers

10 Proxy indicators (Open Access)
Quality and Transparency of the editorial process The journal must have an editor/editorial board All editorial members must be easily identified Specification of the review process Editorial review, Peer review, Blind peer review, Double blind peer review Statements about aims & scope clearly visible Instructions to authors shall be available and easily located Screening for plagiarism? Time from submission to publication Transparency

11 More ... Openness CC (Creative Commons copyright) licenses– if Yes, which? Reader rights Reuse rights Copyrights Author posting rights NO Mask A pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law

12 Comparisons between print publishing and open access (electronic publishing
Traditional venue Normally attached to University presses or commercial publishers (profit motive) Wide range of options and qualities Some require payment Time frame from submission to publication can be long Depending on journal, authors may only have one or two opportunities to check or amend their articles before publication Growing phenomenon Running, lower costs Two types: 1. traditional journals moving to digital repositories, retaining look and feel of print 2. electronic journals born digital, some experimenting with format and mode of peer review Attached to University presses or commercial publishers, (not always) Time frame in theory quicker Authors may have more opportunities for amendments, both before publication and after

13 How an electronic journal works
Software controls process Authors submit on line Peer review process tracked Editing and galleying process tracked Authors/editors/reviewers can check progress Communication is standardised

14 Some basic editorial tips for meeting journal requirements
Select the right journal Read the journal and get a sense of its contents If new to publishing sound out the main editor Follow the journal guidelines for authors! Understand referencing systems Proof and spell check Don’t rush to publish Seek advice from people in your field

15 Founded 2003 at Lund University with 300 journals
Initially funded by minor project grants from SPARC (The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) and Open Society Institute Additional grants from: SPARC Europe, INASP and Membership/Sponsor funding model introduced 2006 Constant growth during the years End of 2012: journals

16 Founded by Caroline Sutton, Alma Swan & Lars Bjørnshauge

17 Predatory Journals BEWARE!!!
Associate Professor Jeffrey Beall, Uni Colorado: Schlarly Open Access website: Angelika H. Hofmann Jeffrey Beall

18 Predatory Publishers –

19 Predatory publishers Use deceptive practices to publish articles
Make money, solicit papers via spam, not reputable Publish everything; no peer-review, charge you to publish Don’t do it! (It won’t count) Consult your faculty advisor before publishing Operating in someone’s apt, use gmail accounts, no authentication of people’s credentials, put professors on editorial boards without permission, claim false impact factors Beall’s list - -

20 Problems outlined among the predatory journals
Articles published without complete author approval Articles published before payment terms were either understood or completed Articles published with payment terms incomplete but then negotiated, forcing authors into an uncomfortable position An editorial process that created more problems than it solved, with errors introduced during proof-reading Papers published without peer-review

21 Tactics of predatory publishers
Notifying authors about article fees after the article is accepted or published Aggressively campaigning for academics to submit articles or serve on editorial boards Listing academics as members of the editorial board without their permission Not allowing academics to resign from an editorial board Appointing fake board members Mimicking the name/ style of a reputable journal publisher Publish plagiarized articles or chapters

22 Predatory publishers Exploit the gold open-access model Have a conflict of interest Use deceit to increase their business Author-centric rather than reader centric Not transparent in their operations Do not follow scholarly publishing standards

23 How Predatory Publishers Operate
Spam Launch with many journals at once Use journals titles very close to existing titles Their journals have broad scopes Hide or misrepresent their true locations Poor or no peer review Don’t check for plagiarism Some also offer predatory conferences

24 Why Predatory Publishers are a Problem
They claim to be prestigious publishers when they are not They claim their journals have impact factors when they do not They publish junk science They don’t use digital preservation services (backups) The gold open-access model doesn’t work well in arts and humanities They may increase the amount of research misconduct

25 List of questionable publishers

26 Important sites (to make yourself visible):
ORCID: distinguishes you from every other researcher Researcher ID

27 In order to publish your article:
JANE: Journal, Author, Name estimator

28 It is your decision!!!


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