DAY SEVEN: AGENDA Bell Ringer Grammar Notes: Persuasive Techniques - Ethos, Pathos, Logos Video Clips (Heck Tate, Bob Ewell) Exit Slip Homework: Ch. 18-19
BELL RINGER #7 (A) 4/27 & (B) 4/28 Have you ever had to persuade a parent, teacher, friend, boss, etc., of something that s/he would not normally give you or let you do? Explain how you attempted to persuade him/her to support you. Did it work? If not, what should you have done differently?
WORD WORK #7 1. ambidextrous (adj.): able to use both hands with equal ease 3. acrimonious (adj.): sarcastic; bitter; nasty 4. chiffarobe (n.): a large cabinet with drawers and a place for hanging clothes. 5. mollified (adj.): soothed; calmed
WORD WORK #7 Choose which word does NOT belong in each list. Be sure to justify your answers. 1.lefty; right-handed; ambidextrous 2.truthful; polite; respectful; acrimonious 3.dresser; nightstand; chiffarobe; couch 4.mollified; calm; angry; relaxed
SKILL FOCUS: PERSUASION Definition: Persuasion is the attempt to convince others to do something or to change a belief of their own free will.
PERSUASION VS. PROPAGANDA WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE? Propaganda techniques are designed to convince people to believe something, regardless of its truth and always in a one- sided manner. Propaganda techniques tend to be subjective. Persuasive techniques are designed to establish the truth of an argument or claim by presenting evidence. Persuasive techniques can be objective or subjective.
PERSUASIVE WRITING Persuasive writing tries to change what the audience thinks, feels, believes, or values, or to move the audience to take action. In a persuasive argument the person attempts to convince the audience to embrace that same position. Some examples used to persuade: Make sure your approach is presented appropriately If you cannot find convincing evidence, consider changing your point of view. If something makes sense, that in itself can be convincing. Telling the audience what benefits they would derive from following your advice can be helpful.
PERSUASION EXAMPLES, CONT. Finding common ground (appeal to principle, belief, or ideal that you and your audience share) Use specific details. This includes statistics and other numerical data. Address the other person’s point of view. Ask yourself, “Have I ever been in a similar situation?” and “How would I feel if...?” Make your point in several different ways. This will help to ensure that you have communicated clearly and may help to reinforce your point.
IN EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PASSAGES, ANALYZE THE ELEMENTS OF PERSUASION YOU FIND. (WHAT MAKES THE ARGUMENT PERSUASIVE?) 1.“Please don’t send me back, please sir’” (Scout to Atticus, p. 29) 2.“’Ain’t no snot-nosed s*ut of a schoolteacher ever born c’n make me do nothin’!” (Burris to Miss Caroline, p. 28) 3.“How would we like it if Atticus barged in on us without knocking when we were in our rooms at night?” (Scout’s report of Atticus’s words to her and Jem, p. 49) 4.“I’m goin’ after ‘em,’ he said… ‘You do an’ I’ll wake up Atticus.’ ‘You do and I’ll kill you’” (Jem and Scout, p. 56) 5.“’Come on home to dinner with us, Walter,’ he said. ‘We’d be glad to have you… our daddy’s a friend of your daddy’s’” (Jem to Walter Cunningham, p. 23). 6.“’If I hear another sound from this room I’ll burn up everybody in it’” (Miss Blount to the first grade, p. 22). 7.“’You never went to school and you do all right, so I’ll just stay home too. You can teach me like Granddaddy taught you ‘n’ Uncle Jack’” (Scout to Atticus, p. 29). 8.“’We’re askin’ him real politely to come out sometimes, and tell us what he does in there—we said we wouldn’t hurt him and we’d buy him an ice cream’” (Dill to Scout about persuasion directed at Boo Radley, p. 47).
Ethical Appeal (ethos) appealing to someone’s sense of authority/credibility
EXAMPLES: ETHICAL APPEAL Michael Jordan says: “The best energy drink to consume is Gatorade.” How does this persuade us to buy this drink? What is ethical about Michael Jordan’s opinion?
PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES Emotional appeal (Pathos) appealing to someone’s sense of emotion
EXAMPLE: EMOTIONAL APPEAL There are literally millions of animals that are abandoned each year, just left to die in the streets. Won’t you help just one of them?
PERSUASIVE TECHNIQUES Logical Appeal (logos) appealing to someone’s sense of reason.
EXAMPLE: LOGICAL APPEAL You should work hard at school because... 1.It gives you options (choices!). 2.It helps you understand the world around you. 3.It will help you get a good job. 4.Education = $$$ 5.It gives you power to live your life the way you want to!
Persuasive Appeals Logos (Logical) Ethos (Ethical) Pathos (Emotional) facts statistics reasons relationships of cause and effect right and wrong trustworthiness credibility expert speaker fear pity/sympathy humor sadness happiness
PRACTICE Which type of argument (logos, ethos, or pathos) is the following, and how do you know??? “You shouldn’t smoke because it is bad for your health. Think about all of the little kids who look up to you and admire you, would you really want to let them down?”
CH. 16 QUESTIONS 1, Identify two issue Atticus and Aunt Alexandra disagree on. a.b. 2. Paraphrase Atticus’ explanation to Scout of the mob’s actions. 3. What could be two reasons why Mr. Underwood (who is racist) would protect Atticus at the courthouse? a.b. 4. List two things about Mr. Dolphus Raymond that interest the gossips of the town: a.b. 5. Explain the contrast between Judge Taylor’s appearance and his ability.
CH. 17 QUESTIONS 1. What detail does Atticus gain from Heck Tate about Mayella’s injuries? 2. List three details about the Ewells’ home: a. b. c. 3.What important part of the trial process does Mr. Ewell not anticipate? 4. What does Atticus reveal about Mr. Ewell by having him sign his name?
CHAPTER 16 SUMMARY (PP. 208-221) Jem comes to get Scout she is crying in her room, he comforts her. At breakfast the next day, Alexandra criticizes the children for sneaking out, but Atticus says he is glad they did. Scout is confused by Atticus’s having called Mr. Cunningham a friend, considering the “mob scene” the night before. Dill arrives, and Aunt Alexandra make the kids stay in the yard. At noon, Atticus comes home from dinner saying they have picked a jury. They speak with Dolphus Raymond on their way to the courthouse. The kids can’t find a seat but Rev. Sykes takes them to the colored balcony.
CHAPTER 17 SUMMARY (PP. 222-238) Sheriff Tate testifies as he is questioned by the prosecuting attorney, Mr. Gilmer. Mr. Tate explains that Bob Ewell called him to the house where he found his daughter, Mayella, “pretty well beat up”. She told the Sheriff that Tom Robinson had hurt her. Next, it is Atticus’ turn to question Sheriff Tate. He asks the Sheriff is he called for a doctor and he said no. He explains she is beaten around the head and arms and that her right eye was blackened. Finally, Bob Ewell testifies. When Atticus questions Mr. Ewell he asks does he agree with the description of the events given by Sheriff Tate and Ewell says he does. Atticus then asks Ewell if he can read and write which he states he can. Ewell is then asked to write his name which is done by using his left hand.
CONNECTING TO THE COURT SCENE IN TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD Heck Tate Prosecution (what Mr. Gilmer would have solicited from Heck Tate during his testimony) Defense (what Atticus would have solicited from Heck Tate during his cross-examination) Ethical (ethos) Sheriff in town—has natural authority Does not call the authority of a doctor Emotional (pathos) Saw Mayella badly injured Describes how small she is, especially her throat N/A—why would Atticus not use this type? Logical (logos) Went immediately when called Arrested Tom Robinson for identification Restating the side of the injuries Reporting as “told”—no evidence collected?
NOW ON YOUR OWN... Bob EwellMayella EwellTom Robinson ProsecutionDefenseProsecutionDefenseProsecutionDefense Ethical Emotional Logical In what way does the DEFENSE (Atticus) and the PROSECUTION (Mr. Gilmer) appeal to the jury’s sense of Ethical, Emotional, and Logical appeals during the trial for each of the following person’s testimonies:
EXIT SLIP INSTRUCTIONS In today’s exit slip, you will be asked to write a persuasive argument. Before writing, be sure to ask yourself the following questions: Who is my audience and how do they feel about the topic? What is it that I want to persuade them to do, think, feel, etc.? What specific details can I use? How can I convince them that I am reliable and should be trusted?
EXIT SLIP Choose from the following options: A. Atticus convincing Miss Rachel not to punish Dill for playing “strip poker.” B. Jem attempting to convince Scout to mail a letter to Boo at the post office. C. Scout trying to persuade Miss Caroline to let her read Tom Swift in school while the other students are working on the First Grade Reader. D. The truant lady trying to convince the Ewells to go to school. Be sure to answer all of the essential questions before you begin writing. Your argument should be at least ONE PARAGRAPH in length!