Presentation on theme: "An Age of Limits President Nixon reaches out to Communist nations, but leaves office disgraced by the Watergate scandal. His successors face a sluggish."— Presentation transcript:
1An Age of LimitsPresident Nixon reaches out to Communist nations, but leaves office disgraced by the Watergate scandal. His successors face a sluggish economy, environmental concerns, and a revolution in Iran.NEXT
2Watergate: Nixon's Downfall Section 2Watergate: Nixon's DownfallPresident Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal forces him to resign from office.NEXT
3Learning Objectives: Section 2 Watergate: Nixon's Downfall 1. Analyze how Nixon and his advisors sought to increase the power of the presidency. 2. Summarize the details of the Watergate burglary. 3. Describe how the Watergate scandal was uncovered. 4. Explain why the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon and analyze the impact of Watergate on American politics.
4Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall 2SECTIONWatergate: Nixon’s DownfallPresident Nixon and His White HouseAn Imperial PresidencyDepression, WW II, Cold War make executive most powerful branchNixon expands presidential powers, ignores CongressThe President’s MenNixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy- H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff- John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser- John Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney general- John Dean, White House counselNEXT
5By the time Nixon became president, the executive branch had become powerful. He confided in a small group of very loyal advisers.H.R. HaldemanJohn EhrlichmanThese advisers included H.R. Haldeman, chief of staff; John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser; & John Mitchell, the attorney general.John Mitchell
6The Drive Toward Reelection 2SECTIONThe Drive Toward ReelectionA Bungled Burglary• Committee to Reelect the President break into Democratic headquarters• Watergate scandal is administration’s attempt to cover up break-in- destroy documents, try to stop investigation, buy burglars’ silenceWashington Post reporters link administration to break-inWhite House denies allegations; little public interest in chargesNixon reelected by landslide over liberal Democrat George McGovernNEXT
7GUIDED READINGHow were the “plumbers” connected to President Nixon?The plumbers’ leader was an official of the Committee to Reelect the President;John Mitchell, CRP's director, had resigned as attorney general to run Nixon's campaign.
8The men were caught photographing files & placing wiretaps on phones. The press soon discovered that the group’s leader, James McCord, was a former CIA agent.
9Chap Stick microphones used by E. Howard Hunt and G Chap Stick microphones used by E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy during the burglary.
10After Nixon’s reelection, the cover-up began to unravel. In Jan After Nixon’s reelection, the cover-up began to unravel. In Jan. ’73, the Watergate burglars, except McCord, changed their pleas from innocent to guilty. (He was found guilty by a jury)The trial’s presiding judge, Judge John Sirica, believed that the burglars did not act alone.
11The Cover-Up Unravels The Senate Investigates Watergate 2 SECTIONThe Cover-Up UnravelsThe Senate Investigates WatergateJudge John Sirica presides burglars’ trial, thinks did not act aloneBurglar leader James McCord says lied under oath, advisers involvedNixon dismisses White House counsel John Dean; others resignSenator Samuel J. Ervin heads investigative committeeContinued . . .NEXT
12GUIDED READING2. Who was the judge? Why did he hand out maximum sentences?Judge John Sirica;to encourage the defendants who received sentences to identify others who were also involved
13John Mitchell, who had been attorney general, was the CRP’s director. McCord was also an official of a group known as the Committee to Reelect the President (CRP).John Mitchell, who had been attorney general, was the CRP’s director.
14Nixon & his staff tried to hide the link to the White House. Workers shredded evidence. Nixon & his staff asked the CIA to urge the FBI to stop its investigations into the burglary.
15Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall 2SECTIONWatergate: Nixon’s DownfallPresident Nixon and His White HouseThe President’s MenNixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy- John Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney general- John Dean, White House counselNEXT
16GUIDED READING3. How were Mitchell and Dean connected to Nixon?Mitchell had been Nixon's attorney general;Dean had been White House counsel.
17The President then went on television & denied any cover-up. Soon the public interest in the Watergate burglary increased. In April ’73, Three top Nixon aides resigned.The President then went on television & denied any cover-up.
18Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall 2SECTIONWatergate: Nixon’s DownfallPresident Nixon and His White HouseThe President’s MenNixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy- H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff- John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviserNEXT
19GUIDED READING4. How were Haldeman and Erlichman connected to Nixon?Haldeman was Nixon's chief of staff;Erlichman was Nixon's chief domestic adviser.
20In May 1973, the Senate began its own investigation of Watergate In May 1973, the Senate began its own investigation of Watergate. The Senate hearings were televised live.In the hearings, one of Nixon’s aides said that Nixon knew about the cover-up.
22Then it was reveled that White House meetings had been tape-recorded. A Uher 5000, similar to the one used by Nixon's secretary to erase part of one of the tapes.An example of a Sony 800B recorder, as used in Nixon's officeThe Senate committee demanded the tapes. Nixon refused to release them.
23GUIDED READING5. What did the following men tell the Senate about Nixon?a. Dean - Nixon was deeply involved in the Cover-up.b. Butterfield - Nixon had taped nearly all of his presidential conversations.
24Nixon announced that he was appointing Elliot Richardson as the new attorney general. He authorized Richardson to appoint a special prosecutor to investigate Watergate.
25Court battles over the tapes lasted a year. Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor, took the president to court in Oct to get the tapes. Nixon refused & ordered Richardson to fire Cox.
26In what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre, Richardson refused the order & resigned. Robert BorkThe deputy attorney general also refused & resigned. Solicitor General Robert Bork finally fired Cox. But his replacement, Leon Jaworski was determined to get the tapes.
27The Saturday Night Massacre 2SECTIONcontinued The Cover-Up UnravelsThe Saturday Night MassacreSpecial prosecutor Archibald Cox subpoenas tapes; Nixon refusesNixon orders Cox fired, attorney general Elliot Richardson refuses• Saturday Night Massacre: Richardson resigns; deputy refuses, firedCox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, also calls for tapesVice President Spiro Agnew resigns, revealed he accepted bribesNixon nominates, Congress confirms Gerald R. Ford as vice-presidentNEXT
28GUIDED READING6. Who was fired or forced to resign in the “massacre”? Attorney General Richardson resigned; the deputy attorney general was fired; special prosecutor Cox was fired.
29Nixon released more than 1,250 pages of taped conversations. In March 1974, a grand jury charged 7 Nixon aides with obstruction of justice & perjury.Nixon released more than 1,250 pages of taped conversations.But he didn’t release the conversations on some key dates.In July ’74, the Supreme Court ordered the White House to release the tapes.President Nixon giving a televised address explaining release of edited transcripts of the tapes on April 29, 1974
30The Fall of a President Nixon Releases the Tapes 2 SECTIONThe Fall of a PresidentNixon Releases the TapesMarch 1974, grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides- charges: conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjuryNixon tells TV audience he is releasing edited transcriptsJuly, Supreme Court rules unanimously Nixon must surrender tapesContinued . . .NEXT
31GUIDED READING7. Why weren’t investigators satisfied with the transcripts?because only unedited tapes could provide evidence involving possible criminal activity
32Three days later, a House committee voted to impeach President Nixon. If the full House of Representatives approved, Nixon would go to trial in the Senate. If found guilty there, he would be removed from office.
33When the tapes were finally released, they proved that Nixon had known of the cover-up. On August 8, 1974, before the impeachment could happen, Nixon resigned.
342SECTIONcontinued The Fall of a PresidentThe President ResignsHouse Judiciary Committee approves 3 articles of impeachment- formal accusation of wrongdoing while in office- charges: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of CongressNixon releases tapes; show he knew of administration role, cover upBefore full House votes on impeachment, Nixon resignsNEXT
35GUIDED READING8. What did the tapes reveal?that within a week, Nixon had known of his administration's role in the burglary and had participated in the cover-up
36Watergate produced distrust about the presidency. A poll taken in 1974 showed that 43% of Americans had lost faith in the presidency. In the years after Vietnam & Watergate, Americans developed a deep distrust of government.
37The Effects of Watergate 2SECTIONcontinued The Fall of a PresidentThe Effects of Watergate25 members of administration convicted, serve prison termsNEXT