Presentation on theme: "Developed by: Sherman Swanson, University of Nevada, Reno Susan Donaldson, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension UNCE, Reno, Nev."— Presentation transcript:
Developed by: Sherman Swanson, University of Nevada, Reno Susan Donaldson, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension UNCE, Reno, Nev.
What do you like about living near a stream? What’s a riparian area and floodplain, and why are they important? Signs of a healthy stream Signs of an unhealthy stream Tips on taking care of your stream and watershed
A body of water that flows year-round Naturally occurring May have been straightened at some point in the past to deliver irrigation water, but was not originally constructed to convey irrigation water (that’s a ditch!)
UNR, Reno, Nev.
Where does your stream come from???
In your watershed, when are stream flows highest? Lowest? Can you remember the last flood? Where did the water go? Where does the water come from during dry weather?
NRCS USDA NRCS
NRCS, Bozeman, Mont., adapted by A. Miller
Reduced downstream flooding Increased stream flows in dry weather Sediment and pollutants are trapped Nutrients are cycled USDA NRCS
Vegetation provides shade to keep water cool Stream and bank stability are increased Provide habitat for fish and other wildlife UNCE, Reno, Nev.
Vegetation present to protect and stabilize banks There is a high water table with lots of water storage The water quality is good More consistent water temperature with shade Longer or more consistent flows Balance of water and sediment flowing through the system
Add photo UNCE, Reno, Nev. Montana
Leg 3: If streams don’t sustain, they erode If streams don’t sustain healthy riparian vegetation, they erode Leg 2: If streams don’t, they store little water and erode a lot If streams don’t flood onto their floodplains, they store little water and erode a lot Leg 1: If streamside soils don’t, they don’t grow the right kinds of plants If streamside soils don’t retain enough water, they don’t grow the right kinds of plants
If streams erode too much, they lose access to their floodplain DNRC, Mont. Too many have already done so!
Low water table and less water storage Little shade and warmer water Poor water quality Little vegetation and roots to protect and stabilize banks Poor floodplain access Stream shape wrong for the setting
UNCE, Reno, Nev.
Make a deal with your stream to give it some floodplain access and riparian vegetation for more long-term stability and less worry Seek out professionals who understand: upstream and downstream connections proper functioning conditions necessary tools
Federal permits (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 404 permits) State authorities (pollution control, fish and wildlife agencies, etc.) Local government (special use permits, grading and excavation, dust control plans, buffer zones, etc.)
Managing livestock near streams Living near a floodplain Designing in-stream projects Building or fixing roads and bridges Controlling pollution Managing streams for wildlife Enjoying your stream or riparian area
Keep animal handling facilities away from the stream UNR, Reno, Nev.
Manage livestock near streams
USDA NRCS Armor for intense use
USDA NRCS Water livestock off-stream
UNR, Reno, Nev. Don’t overgraze – leave some leaf area UNR, Reno, Nev.
Monitor willows for proper grazing UNR, Reno, Nev.
Build fences away from streams UNR, Reno, Nev.
Place salt away from the stream UNR, Reno, Nev.
If possible, don’t live in a floodplain UNR, Reno, Nev.
UNCE, Reno, Nev. If you live in a floodplain, get insurance
Put flood-compatible uses in floodplains UNR, Reno, Nev. Parks Recreation Open spaces Agriculture Wildlife habitat Parking lots
Before starting a project, consult with others: Neighbors who will be affected Agencies: local, state, and federal Watershed groups Consultants Etc.
Designing in-stream projects UNR,, Reno, Nev.
Designing in-stream projects UNCE, Reno, Nev.
UNR, Reno, Nev.
Keep soil covered to prevent erosion Manage manure Read and follow the label on pesticide containers Dispose of household hazardous wastes properly (don’t dump in a storm sewer, which often flows directly to a creek) Maintain a riparian buffer strip
Relax near the sights and quiet sounds Enjoy the wildflowers and other plants Plant vegetation that attracts wildlife Learn to identify birds and other wildlife Orient windows, decks, etc. to see the beauty USDA NRCS
Identify areas with accelerated erosion Note places where land use has removed or weakened the vegetation Learn to identify key riparian plants Draw or photograph your stream Learn where flooding helps a stream slow velocity and store water by spreading out
Note any channel/floodplain- altering projects, structures, or activities UNCE, Reno, Nev. Know your watershed groups and local experts about streams and floodplains in your area.
List goals for your creek and floodplain. Encourage natural recovery. Learn to live with floods. List specific objectives. Allow the stream to become lined with willows. Give the stream room to move and flood on my property. Help the watershed group with their cleanup project.
List actions to start or stop. Graze the pasture only until livestock begin grazing on the willows, then move them. Move the road away from the edge of the stream. Attend public meeting about flood management projects.
List questions you have about your creek and the effects of your management. Are these plants surviving? What will happen to my creek when they build the subdivision upstream? Is the erosion caused by my bridge about to stop? Record what you (or others) do. Three horses grazed from April 1 to May 1 and from mid-June to mid-July. Record the effects. Moving stock out of the pasture in mid-July allowed the willows to grow.
Take lots of photos, date and label them. Record what happens in the long run. After the floodplain and willows returned, the stream developed pools where fish like to hide.
Developed by: Susan Donaldson University of Nevada Cooperative Extension USDA NRCS
What is a pond? Why have a pond? Types of ponds Pond requirements and issues Site considerations Water quality, vegetation and fish Maintaining your pond
Lake: more than 10 acres Pond: less than 10 acres Pond: manmade Arbitrary distinction - smaller than a lake! UNCE, Reno, Nev.
Irrigation water storage (is it legal?) Stock watering Aesthetics Wildlife habitat Fish production Recreation Fire suppression, etc. USDA NRCS
Aesthetics versus ugliness Water storage versus legal issues Livestock watering versus water quality Recreation versus public health, safety, risk management Habitat versus nuisance species USDA NRCS
Do you have the right to an adequate amount of water to keep the pond filled during hot weather? How much evaporation will occur from the water surface? No water, no pond! USDA NRCS
Check on local and state laws regarding liability and other issues Check your CC&Rs Check with your insurer USDA NCRS Obtain needed permits ◦ Water rights ◦ Div. of Water Resources ◦ Army Corps of Engineers ◦ County
Bottom soils and seepage: Fine-textured clays and silty clays work best Sandy soils won’t hold water If bottom materials are not suitable, the rate of water loss may be unacceptable www.earthponds.com
Keep pond at least 100 feet from a septic leach field Don’t build on top of buried pipelines, cables or utilities Site should be accessible for maintenance Pond should fit into the design for the rest of your landscaping USDA NRCS
A deeper pond has less nuisance weed growth and less temperature fluctuation For fish habitat, a pond should be deep enough to avoid winter freezing issues Keep pond at least 3 feet deep to avoid cattail encroachment Size of the pond depends on water availability, CC&Rs, risk and insurance costs, etc.
Ponds may be a source of water quality impairment ◦ Sediment ◦ Nutrients ◦ Temperature UNCE, Reno, Nev.
Emergency spillway: how much water does the spillway hold? ◦ More severe events may destroy a dam ◦ Will the failure threaten your home or someone else's home? USDA NRCS UNCE, Reno, Nev.
Identify your plants Select species for revegetation Learn about plant management needs and longevity Manage invasive species USDA NRCS
When stocking, consider water quality needs ◦ Temperature ◦ Dissolved oxygen ◦ pH ◦ Nutrients Permit requirements – contact CPW or U.S. Fish & Wildlife Appropriate species Fish needs Stocking rates Best time to stock
Don’t build one in the first place! Fence livestock out of the pond and provide an alternate freeze-proof, year-round watering source USDA NRCS Maintain deep pond edges to deter the growth of aquatic weeds (3 to 4 feet) Maintain healthy vegetation around the pond Manage your pond to minimize problem algae that may shelter mosquitoes. Nutrient control will help reduce algae blooms.
Inventory your pond. ◦ What’s growing on the banks? ◦ What’s growing in the water? ◦ How deep is the pond? ◦ What temperature is the water? Do the jar test. If you don’t have a pond, write your own personal pro and con list.