2Levels of Ecological Organization Ecologists study life at many levels.Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environments .IndividualSpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiosphereCellsTissueOrgansOrgan SystemsIndividual SpeciesAtomsSimple MoleculesMacro-moleculesOrganellesCells
3Individual Species/Organism Basic level of study for an ecologist is an individual organism.Ecology describes the relationship between organisms and their environment.A species is a group of individuals that…interbreed and produce fertile offspring.have genetic similarity
4PopulationsPopulation: members of the same species that live in the same area at the same time.The fleas living on your dog = a population.All of the golden toads in the Costa Rican rainforest = a population.
5Communities All of the populations in a particular area. PA bears’ community includes:Plants and treesOther animalsFungusStream life
6EcosystemsAn ecosystem includes all of the living things in an area AND their physical environment.Back to the bears…Their ecosystem would including the following…AirTreesSoilNutrientsRivers
7Biosphere All of the parts of Earth that host life. all of the organisms and environments in which they live.Ecologists rarely study this “grand” of a scale!
9Biotic vs. Abiotic Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors Living parts of ecosystem or were “recently” alive.Examples: leaves, trees, fallen logs, carrion (decomposing animals)Ecosystem parts that have never been living.Many are used or consumed by living things.Examples: oxygen, sunlight, water, carbon.
10Habitat The environment in which an organism lives Includes all the resources needed to survive.Include both abiotic and biotic factors, because both are required for living things to survive.
11Review QuestionsWould all of the different kinds of organisms in a pond be considered a population or a community? Explain.For each level of ecological organization (refer to your chart) state whether it contains only biotic factors, only abiotic factors, or both.