Irrigation Large quantity of water. Dependable water source. Overhead irrigation. – Drip irrigation on a smaller scale. Irrigation: – Plants need water – Cool root systems
Planting Density High disease pressure. More plants per acre. Higher labor cost per acre. Large amount of plant culture.
Root System Considerations Root system is above-ground. Heating of growing medium during summer months. May need winter protection in colder climates. Potential for the roots to become pot-bound. Confined root volume. Frequent up-shifting to larger container. Grower supplies all plant nutrition.
Sizes of Plastic Nursery Containers; Injection-molded, Nursery Supplies Poly- tainer Trade Size DIAHCCCIGALL 1BLK#1672,481151.662.48 2#2 8 ½ 61893771.66.19 3#310 9 ¼ 10,4406372.810.44 3S #3 Squat 9 ½ 87,6374662.07.64 4 #5 Egg Can 101213,7358383.613.74 5S #5 Squat 111013,9098483.713.91
Culture Pest control Staking Fertilizing Pruning Watering Weed control – Use herbicides with low water solubilities. Transplanting Blow over
Weed Control The more water soluble the herbicide, the faster it moves downward through the mix, and the greater the likelihood of damaging the crop. Use preemergent herbicides with water solubilities LESS than ONE ppm.
Recommended Herbicides (Whitcomb) Barricade, Factor (prodiamine) @ 0.013 ppm water solubility Goal (oxyfluorfen) @ 0.1 ppm Treflan (trifluralin @ 0.3 ppm Prowl, Pendulum, Southern WeedGrass Control (pendimethalin)@ 0.5 ppm Ronstar (oxadiazon) @ 0.7 ppm Gallery (isohexaben) @ 1.0 ppm Rout is a combination of Goal and Surflan Snapshot 80 DF is a combination of Gallery and Surflan Snapshot 2.5 TG is a combination of Gallery and Treflan Ornamental Herbicide II is a combination of Goal and Prowl
Facilities Production areas. – Gravel floor. 4-6 inches base rock 4-6 inches road gravel Gravel roadways. Drainage plan including proper grading of site. State law in CA to recycle all irrigation water. Retention pond. Media preparation area. Equipment storage. Administrative offices. Potting area. Holding area. Shipping dock. Pesticide storage. Parking. Employee facilities.
Harvesting 100% of the root system. Easier harvest than B&B. Year-round harvest.
Container Production versus Field Production Area of Comparison FieldContainer Number of Employees 1 per 5-10 acres 1 per acre Production Cycle Longer 1- 6+ yrs Shorter 6 mo - 2+ yrs Harvest Periodic (Spring/Fall) Year-round Types and sizes of plants Preferred production system for large caliper trees More efficient production of shrubs, annuals, and perennials
Area of Comparison FieldContainer Irrigation Irrigation not mandatory; but may be needed during periods of drought Frequent to daily irrigation required; manage high root zone temps Overwintering Little to no protection required Protection required Production centers All across the country Most production centered in the sunbelt states The future DecliningIncreasing