Presentation on theme: "CEE 210 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS Lecture: Global Perspectives on Ecology Instructor: L.R. Chevalier Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
CEE 210 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS Lecture: Global Perspectives on Ecology Instructor: L.R. Chevalier Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Environmental Biology for Engineers Objectives Describe the different biomes found on earth Review the findings of the study on global ecology commissioned by the United Nations Identify facts and challenges of global ecology Understand the role of civil and environmental engineering in global ecology
Environmental Biology for Engineers What is Ecology? The study of Adaptation of life to the environment The cycle of materials and energy through living communities Changing environments Abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Biomes: Our ecological communities FreshwaterMarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Freshwater Water, is a major natural resource. Freshwater biomes supply us with our drinking water and water for crop irrigation Countless species live in it for all or part of their lives. Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Freshwater: Ponds and Lakes A view across Manzanita Lake toward Mt. Lassen, California A forest pond near Donnelly, Idaho Great Blue Heron Paranagat Lake, southeastern Nevada
Environmental Biology for Engineers Freshwater: Streams and rivers McArthur-Burney Falls State Park, California Trout Green River, Utah Brooks River, Alaska.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Freshwater: Wetlands Pescadero Marsh, California Coastal marsh at Umpqua Dunes, Oregon Trees and bogs on Esther Island, Alaska.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Marine The world's oceans have an even greater effect on global climate than forests do. Water has a high capacity for heat, and because the Earth is mostly covered with water, the temperature of the atmosphere is kept fairly constant and able to support life. In addition to this climate-buffering capacity, the oceans contain several billion photosynthetic plankton which account for most of the photosynthesis occurring on Earth. Without these, there might not be enough oxygen to support such a large world population and complex animal life. Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Marine: Ocean Ocean: mussels, worms, and a spider crab at a hydrocarbon seep community in the Gulf of Mexico A sea fan and brain coral in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary A school of Atlantic amberjack off North Carolina.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Marine: Coral Reefs Reef life in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea Reef at Fanning Island atoll in the central Pacific Reef in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
Environmental Biology for Engineers Marine: Estuaries Mangrove roots, south Florida Wetlands and tidal streams in the Ashe Island area, ACE Basin National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Carolina Salt marsh in Winyah Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, South Carolina
Environmental Biology for Engineers Desert Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. Most deserts, such as the Sahara of North Africa and the deserts of the southwestern U.S., Mexico, and Australia, occur at low latitudes, Cold deserts, occur in the basin and range area of Utah and Nevada and in parts of western Asia. Most deserts have a considerable amount of specialized vegetation, as well as specialized vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Soils often have abundant nutrients, they need only water to become productive Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Desert: Cold Lichen growing on Torgerson Island, Antarctica Kangaroo rat
Environmental Biology for Engineers Forest Occupy approximately one-third of Earth's land area Account for over two-thirds of the leaf area of land plants Contain about 70% of carbon present in living things Threatened by deforestation, product demand, and pollution Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Tropical Forest Olympic Peninsula rain forest, Washington Patria River, Costa Rica Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar Hawaiian forest.
Environmental Biology for Engineers World Map of Tropical Forest
Environmental Biology for Engineers Forest: Temperate Deciduous Wisconsin woods Forest along California's north coast Forested hills of the Adirondacks, New York.
Environmental Biology for Engineers World Map of Temperate Deciduous Forest
Environmental Biology for Engineers Forest: Boreal forest (taiga) Taiga in Jasper National Park, Alberta Canada; forest west of Stockholm, Sweden.
Environmental Biology for Engineers World Map of Taiga
Environmental Biology for Engineers Grasslands Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses rather than large shrubs or trees Savannas ◦ Cover almost half the surface of Africa (about five million square miles, generally central Africa) and large areas of Australia, South America, and India. Temperate grasslands ◦ veldts of South Africa, the ◦ puszta of Hungary, the ◦ pampas of Argentina and Uruguay, the ◦ steppes of the former Soviet Union, ◦ plains and prairies of central North America. Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers World Map of Grasslands
Environmental Biology for Engineers Grassland: Savannah Savanna in the Samburu Game Preserve, Kenya
Environmental Biology for Engineers Grassland: Temperate Colorado prairie
Environmental Biology for Engineers Tundra Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain Characteristics ◦ Extremely cold climate ◦ Low biotic diversity ◦ Simple vegetation structure ◦ Limitation of drainage ◦ Short season of growth and reproduction ◦ Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material ◦ Large population oscillations Freshwate r MarineDesertForestGrasslandTundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers World Map of Tundra
Environmental Biology for Engineers Tundra: Arctic tundra Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Tundra: Alpine tundra Alpine tundra in Mt. Rainier National Park, Washington Dall Sheep in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska.
Environmental Biology for Engineers Global Perspective: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Commissioned by the United Nations Assessed the consequences of ecosystem change Study conducted from 2001 to 2005 Involved the work of more than 1,360 experts worldwide. Report provides a global view of ecosystems ◦ State-of-the-art scientific research ◦ Trends ◦ Human demands ◦ Sustainability http://www.maweb.org/en/Index.aspx
Environmental Biology for Engineers References The World’s Biomes ◦ University of California Museum of Paleontology ◦ On-Line Exhibit ◦ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/index.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/index.php ◦ Accessed April 2010 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment ◦ http://www.maweb.org/en/Index.aspx http://www.maweb.org/en/Index.aspx
Environmental Biology for Engineers Images The World’s Biomass ◦ University of California Museum of Paleontology ◦ On-Line Exhibit ◦ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/index.php http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/exhibits/biomes/index.php ◦ Accessed April 2010 Namibia Desert ◦ NASA Earth Observatory Collection Maps of Land Biomes ◦ Missouri Botanical Gardens ◦ http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html http://www.mbgnet.net/index.html ◦ Accessed April 2010
Environmental Biology for Engineers Sources of photographs and images in sidebar Human brain ◦ http://www.healthnak.com/mind/ http://www.healthnak.com/mind/ X-rays images ◦ http://martingallerycharleston.com/index.html http://martingallerycharleston.com/index.html Cold Virus (altered in Photoshop) ◦ http://medphoto.wellcome.ac.uk/ http://medphoto.wellcome.ac.uk/ About the Instructor Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering Fellow, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Diplomat, Water Resources Engineering, American Academy of Water Resources Engineering (AAWRE) Board Certified Environmental Engineer, American Academy of Environmental Engineers (AAEE) Licensed Professional Engineer, State of Illinois