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Ecological Succession Biology 11(D). Learning Objectives Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecological Succession Biology 11(D). Learning Objectives Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecological Succession Biology 11(D)

2 Learning Objectives Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity Ecological Succession

3 Population – individuals of a given species in a particular area Community – all the different populations in an area Pioneer community – first inhabitants in new community Climax community – established community Ecological succession – orderly change in makeup of a community over time Pioneer  Climax Ecological Succession

4 Pioneer Community Harsh environment Biomass increasing Energy consumption inefficient Some nutrient loss Low species diversity Fluctuations common Climax Community Favorable environment Biomass stable Energy consumption efficient Nutrient cycling High species diversity Fluctuations uncommon Pioneer vs. Climax Community

5 Ecological succession – land and water Two types: Primary succession – newly formed area Secondary succession – area that has been disturbed How do events and processes that occur during succession change populations and species diversity? Ecological Succession

6 Primary succession in newly formed pond: 1.No organisms 2.Algae and bacteria 3.Heterotrophic protists and small invertebrates 4.Floating plants (pondweed) 5.Larger plants (cattails) grow around edges Primary Succession in Pond

7 Primary succession in newly formed pond: 6.Larger animals 7.Becomes marsh, fills in 8.Shrubs and trees Results: Pioneer  Climax Aquatic  Terrestrial Increased species diversity Complex food chains Primary Succession in Pond

8 Primary succession on rocks: 1.Cooled lava rocks form after volcanic eruption 2.Lichens and mosses appear, dissolve rock, form soil 3.Dead lichens add organic matter 4.Small animals Primary Succession on Rocks

9 Primary succession on rocks: 6.More diverse plants 7.More diverse, larger animals Results: Pioneer  Climax Barren rock  Terrestrial ecosystem More diverse species and populations Primary Succession on Rocks

10 Secondary succession – sequence of changes after a climax community has been destroyed Natural disasters – Forest fire – Flood Secondary Succession

11 Secondary succession – sequence of changes after a climax community has been destroyed Destruction by man – Clearing land for construction or harvest – Abandoned farmland Secondary Succession

12 Secondary succession on abandoned farmland: 1.Soil is sunlit and dry 2.Weeds are pioneers species Secondary Succession on Farmland

13 Secondary succession on abandoned farmland: 3.Weeds die, adding nutrients to soil 4.More plant species 5.Soil shaded by grasses and shrubs 6.Pine seedlings 7.Pine forest community (climax) Results: Abandoned farmland  Pine forest More diverse species and populations Secondary Succession on Farmland

14 Summary of Ecological Succession Species, populations, and communities change over time Unfavorable environment  Favorable environment Few food sources  Many food sources Few species  Many species  Diverse populations Pioneer community  Climax community Ecological Succession

15 Learning Objectives Describe how events and processes that occur during ecological succession can change populations and species diversity Ecological Succession


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