2Scientific InquiryThe many ways that scientists study the natural world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather
3Example: Why do flowers have bright colors? Steps of InquiryStep One: Ask a questionQuestion must be testableDoes not involve personal opinionsExample: Why do flowers have bright colors?
4Come up with your own “testable” question. It can be about ANYTHING. Which of these questions can be answered by inquiry?Is football a better sport then baseball?Does running make your muscles stronger then swimming?Which brand of running shoes look the best?Come up with your own “testable” question. It can be about ANYTHING.
5Step two: Developing a hypothesis A possible answer for the question being askedBased on your prior knowledge and predictionsMust be testable!Can you do an experiment to find out if you are right or wrong?A hypothesis should be tested many times before it is accepted as true or false
6How to write a hypothesis Sometimes it is written as an “If/Then” statementNot always possible to write it this way!Question:Are students more active after eating lunch?I think that if students eat lunch, then they will be more activeCan we test this hypothesis?
7Practice: Does drinking coffee as a teenager make you shorter? Hypothesis:
8Step Three: Designing an experiment HOW will you test your hypothesis?Develop a PROCEDUREThe steps you follow to test your hypothesis and answer the questionHow am I going to answer the question?Must be detailed and specific
9Things to know when writing a procedure Variable:Something you change or manipulate during an experimentExample: You are trying to find out if a pond plant grows best in clean or dirty waterVariable: clean or dirty water
10In order to have a successful experiment you must CONTROL the variables that are NOT being tested Keep other variables the same throughout the whole experimentExample: water temperature, where the water comes from, type of pond plant must be the same for the whole experiment.
11Two types of variables: Manipulated variable :the thing that is purposely changed in an experimentClean or dirty waterResponding variable: The thing that may change in response to the manipulated variableHow well the pond plant grows
12Controlled Experiment Only ONE variable should be tested at a timeTesting more then one variable at a time can confuse the resultsYou can’t test whether pond plants grow better in clean or dirty water AND whether they like warm or cold waterVariables that you keep the same for the experiment are called controlled variables
13Practice Question: Do worms survive better in wet or dry soil? Variables:Manipulated:Responding:Other variables to control:
14Step Four: ResultsThe data you collect after performing the experimentNumbers (quantitative observations)Descriptions (qualitative observations)Usually organized into a data table and/or graph
15Analyze Results/Conclusion Interpret your results.Must be based on the results from your experiment onlyStates whether your hypothesis was correct and any further testing that needs to be done
16Share and RepeatScientist must share their results with the scientific communityRepeat – in order to prove a hypothesis you must repeat the same experiment many times.
17Types of Experiments Statistical experiments Controlled/laboratory experimentsField experiments