2Learning ObjectivesHow is the personality typically defined, and what are the five principles of defining personality?How do psychoanalytic, trait, and social-learning theories explain personality development?
3Conceptualizing the Self and Personality An organized combination of attributes, motives, values, and behaviors unique to each individualOften described in terms of relatively enduring dispositional traits (extraversion or introversion, independence or dependence)
4Conceptualizing the Self and Personality Personality (continued)Characteristic adaptationsSituation-specific and changeable ways in which people adapt to their roles and environmentsMotives, plans, goals, schemas, self-conceptions, stage-specific concerns, coping mechanismsNarrative identitiesUnique and integrative life stories that construct to give ourselves an identity and meaning to our lives
5Conceptualizing the Self and Personality Our self-perceptionsSelf-conceptOur perceptions – positive, negative, realistic, unrealistic – of our attributes and traits as a personSelf-esteemOur overall evaluation of our worth as a person based upon the positive and negative self-perceptions that constitute our self-conceptIdentityOur overall sense of who we are and how we fit into society
6Conceptualizing the Self and Personality Psychoanalytic theoryPsychoanalytic theorists use in-depth interviews, dream analysis, etc. to understand personalityTrait theoryTrait theorists construct personality scales and use the statistical technique of factor analysis to identify groupings of personality scale items that correlate with each other but not with other grouping of items
7Conceptualizing the Self and Personality Currently, there is agreement that personality can be described in terms of a five-factor model.Five dimensions of personality known as the Big FiveOpenness to experienceConscientiousnessExtraversionAgreeablenessNeuroticism
9Conceptualizing the Self and Personality Social-learning theorists reject the notion of universal stages of personality development, question the existence of enduring personality traits, and emphasize that people change if their environments changeFrom the social-learning perspective, personality is a set of behavioral tendencies shaped by interactions with other people in specific social situations
10Learning ObjectivesHow do infants develop a sense of self?What behaviors do researchers accept as evidence of infants’ self-awareness?What is temperament?How do researchers define and describe temperament?
11The Infant – The Emerging Self Infants develop an implicit sense of self through their perceptions of their bodies and actionsIn the first 2 or 3 months, infants discover they can cause things to happenAfter 6 months, infants realize they and other people are separate beings with different perspectives, ones that can be sharedIllustrated by joint attentionAbout 9 months, infants and their companions share perceptual experiences by looking at the same object at the same timeWhen an infant points at an object and looks toward her companions to attempt to focus their attention on the object, she shows awareness that self and other do not always share the same perceptions
12The Infant – The Emerging Self Around 18 months, infants recognize themselves visually as distinct individualsLewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) demonstrated the development of self-recognition by putting a dot of rouge on a baby’s nose and placing the infant in front of a mirrorInfants 18 to 24 months of age touched their noses rather than the mirror, which indicated they thought they had a strange mark on their faces – evidence of self-recognition
13The Infant – The Emerging Self Infants develop a categorical selfClassify themselves into social categories based on age, sex, and other characteristicsWhat is “like me” and what is “not like me”By age 2, infants master the task of distinguishing between photos of themselves and photos of other infants of the same sex
14The Infant – The Emerging Self What contributes to self-awareness in infancy?Cognitive developmentAbility to recognize the selfSocial interactionSocial relationships that enable secure attachmentsSocial feedback – positive and negative
15The Infant – Temperament The study of infant personality has centered on dimensions of temperament – early, genetically based tendencies to respond in predictable ways to eventsEasiness and difficultnessThomas and Chess (1986, 1999) and colleagues studied nine dimensions of infant behavior, includingTypical moodRegularity or predictability of biological functionsTendency to approach or withdraw from new stimuliIntensity of emotional reactionsAdaptability to new experiences and changes in routine
16The Infant – Temperament Categories of temperamentEasy temperamentInfants are even tempered, typically content or happy, open and adaptable to new experiences, have regular feeding and sleeping habits, and are tolerant of frustrations and discomfortsDifficult temperamentInfants are active, irritable, and irregular in their habits, often react negatively (and vigorously) to changes in routine, are slow to adapt to new people or situations, cry frequently and loudly, and often have tantrumsSlow-to-warm-up temperamentInfants are relatively inactive, somewhat moody, only moderately regular in their daily schedules, slow to adapt to new people and situations, but they typically respond in mildly, rather than intensely, negative ways.
17The Infant – Temperament Jerome Kagan identified another aspect of early temperament – behavioral inhibitionThe tendency to be shy, restrained, and distressed in response to unfamiliar people and situationsKagan and his colleagues have concluded that behavioral inhibition is biologically rootedIndividuals with inhibited temperaments display strong brain responses and high heart rates in reaction to unfamiliar stimuli
18The Infant – Temperament Rothbart and colleagues defined infant temperament in terms of emotional reactions and the control/regulation of such reactionsIdentified three dimensions of temperamentSurgency/extraversion – the tendency to actively and energetically approach new experiences in an emotionally positive way (rather than to be inhibited and withdrawn)Negative affectivity – the tendency to be sad, fearful, easily frustrated, and irritable (as opposed to laid back and adaptable)Effortful control – the ability to focus and shift attention when desired, control one’s behavior and plan a course of action, and regulate or suppress one’s emotions
20The Infant – Temperament Thomas and Chess referred to the goodness of fit between a child and her environmentThe extent to which the child’s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of the social world to which she must adaptInfants’ temperaments and their parents’ parenting behaviors reciprocally influence one another and interact over time to steer the direction of later personality development
21Leaning ObjectivesWhat changes occur in the development of children’s self-esteem?What factors influence self-esteem?How does personality evolve over childhood, and what do children understand of their personality?
22The Child – Elaborating on the Sense of Self Toddlers give evidence of their emerging self-conceptsBy age 2, toddlers may use the personal pronouns I, me, my, and mine when referring to the self and you when addressing another personToddlers show their emerging categorical selves when they describe themselves in terms of age and sex
23The Child – Elaborating on the Sense of Self The preschool child’s self-concept is concrete and physicalA preschooler’s self-description focuses on physical characteristics, possessions, physical activities, accomplishments, and preferencesYoung children typically do not mention their psychological traits or inner qualities
24The Child – Elaborating on the Sense of Self Around age 8, psychological and social qualities become prominent in self-descriptionsDescribe their enduring qualities using personality trait terms, such as funny or smartForm social identities, define themselves as part of social units“I’m a Kimberly, a second-grader at Brookside School, a Brownie Scout.”Become more capable of social comparison – using information about how they compare with other children to characterize and evaluate themselves“I’m the fastest runner in my class”
25The Child – Self-Esteem Susan Harter (1999, 2003, 2006) has found that self-esteem becomes more differentiated or multi-dimensional with agePreschoolers distinguish two aspects of self-esteemTheir competence (physical and cognitive)Their personal and social adequacy (social acceptance).By mid-elementary school, children differentiate among five aspects of self-worthScholastic competenceSocial acceptanceBehavioral conductAthletic competencePhysical appearance.
26Caption: The multidimensional and hierarchical nature of self-esteem
27The Child – Self-Esteem As children age, they integrate their self-perceptions in the five distinct domains to form an overall, abstract sense of self-worthSelf-esteem becomes multidimensional and hierarchicalGlobal self-worth is at the top of the hierarchyThe accuracy of children’s self-evaluations increases over the elementary school yearsChildren form a sense of what they “should” be like – an ideal selfWith age, the gap between the real self and the ideal self increases, which contributes to a decrease in average self-esteem from early to middle childhood
28The Child – Influences on Self-Esteem HeredityCompetenceSocial feedbackSecure attachment to warm, democratic parentsSelf-esteem remains stable over the elementary school yearsHigh self-esteem is positively correlated with a variety of measures of good adjustment
29The Child – The Developing Personality During childhood, temperament interacts with individual social experiences and evolves into predictable personalityResearchers are finding links between the dimensions of temperament and Big Five personality trait dimensionsExact relationships are unclearMany aspects of personality do not stabilize until the elementary school years, or adolescence, or adulthood
30Learning ObjectivesHow do adolescents conceptualize their selves, including self-esteem and personality?What factors influence the development of identity during adolescence?How do adolescents make vocational choices?How does work affect adolescents’ identities?
31The Adolescent – Self-Conceptions Compared to children’s self-descriptions, those of adolescentsBecome less physical and more psychologicalBecome less concrete and more abstractHave a more differentiated self-conceptIncludes acceptance by a larger peer group, by close friends, and by romantic partnersAre more integrated and coherentRecognizes and integrates inconsistenciesAre more self-aware and reflective
32The Adolescent – Self-Esteem Between childhood and early adolescence self-esteem tends to decreaseTransition to middle or junior high schoolPhysical changes of pubertySocial context and social comparisonsBig-fish – little-pond effect occurs when the social comparisons are changedA good student in a class of good students is a small fish in a big pondA good student in a class of not-so-great students is a big fish in a little pond
33The Adolescent – Self-Esteem Adolescents who experienced a decrease in self-esteem in early adolescence typically emerge with higher self-esteemContributing factorsOpportunities to feel competent in areas that are important to themApproval and support of parents, peers, and other important peopleAs adults, adolescents with low self-esteem tend to have poorer physical and mental health, poorer career and financial prospects, and higher levels of criminal behavior than adolescents with high self-esteem
34The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Eric Erikson proposed that adolescents experience the psychosocial conflict of identity versus role confusionThe search for identity involves important questionsWhat kind of career do I want?What religious, moral, and political values can I really call my own?Who am I as a man or woman and as a sexual being?Where do I fit into the world?What do I really want out of my life?The many separate perceptions that are part of the self-concept must be integrated into a coherent sense of self – identity
35The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Erikson believed that an adolescent identity crisis can be explained byChanging bodies that call for a revised self-concept and adjustment to being sexual beingsCognitive growth that permits systematic thinking about hypothetical possibilities, including possible future selvesSocial demands to grow upAccording to Erikson, the moratorium period during high school and the college years permits adolescents to experiment with different roles to find themselves
36The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity James Marcia (1966) expanded on Erikson’s theory and developed a procedure to assess adolescent identity formationAdolescents are classified into one of four identity statuses based upon their progress toward an identityThe key questions areWhether an individual has experienced a crisis (or has seriously grappled with identity issues and explored alternatives)Whether an individual has achieved a commitment (that is, resolved the questions raised)
37Caption: The four identity statuses as they apply to religious identity
38The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity James Marcia’s identity statusesDiffusionNo crisis and no commitmentForeclosureCommitment without a crisisAccepted an identity suggested by parents or other peopleMoratorium statusExperiencing a crisis or actively exploring identity issuesQuestioning their religious upbringing, experimenting with drugs, changing majors or relationshipsIdentity achievement statusAfter a period of moratorium, a commitment is made
39Caption: Percentage of subjects in each of James Marcia’s four identity statuses as a function of age
40The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity The process of identity development includes forming an ethnic identityA sense of personal identification with an ethnic group and its values and cultural traditionsThe ingredients of a positive ethnic identity includeSocialization/teaching by parents regarding cultural traditionsPreparation to live in a culturally diverse societyPreparation to deal with prejudice in a manner that does not breed anger and mistrust
41The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Exploring and forging a positive ethnic identity canProtect adolescents’ self-concepts from the damaging effects of racial or ethnic discriminationFoster high overall self-esteemHelp promote academic achievement and good adjustmentReduce depression symptoms.
42The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity The main developmental trend evident in vocational choice is increasing realism with ageBetween the ages of 11 and 18, adolescents become more realistic and begin to make preliminary vocational choices that consider their interests, capacities, and valuesBy late adolescence or emerging adulthood, considerations include the realities of the job market, the physical and intellectual requirements for different occupations, the availability of job openings in a field, the years of education required, and the work conditions
43The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Some adolescents are challenged to form a positive vocational identityAdolescents from lower income families, especially minority group members living in poverty and facing limited opportunities, discrimination, and stress, may lower their career aspirations and aim toward jobs they are likely to get rather than the jobs that interest them mostThe vocational choices of females have been and continue to be constrained by traditional gender norms
44The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Young women who have adopted traditional gender-role attitudes for marriage and family in early adulthood may set their educational and vocational sights low, figuring that they cannot “have it all”Many young women do not seriously consider traditionally male-dominated jobs, doubt their ability to land such jobs, and aim toward feminine-stereotyped, and often lower-status and lower-paying, occupationsMany teens – female and male – do not explore a range of possible occupations before making a choice
45The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Progress toward identity formation in adolescent is influenced by five factorsCognitive growthThe ability to contemplate possible future identities, to think in complex and abstract ways, and to seek informationPersonalityLow neuroticism and high levels of openness to experience and conscientiousnessRelationships with parentsThose who are in the moratorium and identity achievement statuses have solid relationships with parents who encourage autonomy
46The Adolescent – Forging a Sense of Identity Opportunities to exploreExposure to diverse ideas and independent thinking, such as occurs during a college educationThe broader cultural contextIn industrialized Western societies, adolescents are expected to forge an identity after exploring their optionsIn traditional societies, identity foreclosure may be the most adaptive path to adulthood
47Learning ObjectivesHow does personality change during adulthood?Why do people change or remain the same?How does culture influence personality
48The Adult – Self-Conceptions Self-esteem tends rise gradually through the adult years until the mid-60s and then – for some adults – to drop in the 70s and 80sHow do most elderly people manage to maintain positive self-images for so long, even as they experience some of the disabilities and losses that come with aging? ByReducing the gap between the ideal self and the real selfChanging standards of self-evaluationMaking social comparisons to other old peopleAvoiding self-stereotyping
49The Adult – Self-Conceptions Reducing the gap between the ideal self and the real selfAccording to Ryff’s (1991) research, older adults scaled down their visions of what they could ideally be and what they likely will be, possibly because they recognized that aging brings with it a loss of capacitiesThey also judged more positively what they had beenAs a result, their ideal, future, present, and past selves converged
50The Adult – Self-Conceptions Adjusting goals and standards of self-evaluationPeople’s goals and standards change with age so that what seem like losses or failures to a younger person may not be perceived as such by the older adultAs our goals and standards change over the lifespan, we apply different measuring sticks in evaluating ourselves and do not mind failing to achieve goals that are no longer important
51The Adult – Self-Conceptions Comparing the self to other older adultsOlder adults are able to maintain self-esteem by making social comparisons primarily to other older adultsWith people who have the same kinds of chronic diseases and impairments they have, or even worse
52The Adult – Self-Conceptions Not internalizing ageist stereotypesNegative stereotypes we learn and that are reinforced over the years may be applied to the self once we being to think of ourselves as “old”Research shows that negative stereotypes of aging can affect gait (in walking) and memory performanceResearch suggests that ageist stereotypes are harmful to behavior, health, and self-esteem, especially among people who have come to identify themselves as “old” and apply ageist stereotypes to themselves
53The Adult – Self-Conceptions Self-conceptions also reflect broad cultural influencesIn an individualistic culture, individuals define themselves primarily as individuals and put their own goals ahead of their social group’s goalsNorth American and Western European societiesIn a collectivist culture, people define themselves in terms of group memberships and give group goals higher priority than personal goalsLatin America, Africa, and East Asia societies
54The Adult – Self-Conceptions Self-conceptions in an individualistic society such as the United States meanBeing your own person – independent and different from othersDescribing one’s unique personal qualities and the personality traits believed to be apparent in most situations and relationshipsMaintaining high self-esteem
55The Adult – Self-Conceptions Self-conceptions in a collectivist society such as Japan meanBeing interdependent with others, embedded in societyBelieving that the self is different as the social context or situation is differentBeing more modest and self-critical, noting inadequacies
56The Adult – Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality McCrae and Costa’s (2003, 2008) studies of personality change and continuity revealed consistency in rankings within a groupThe person who tends to be extraverted as a young adult is likely to be extraverted as an elderly adult, and the introvert is likely to remain introverted over the yearsThe adult who shows high or low levels of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, or openness to new experiences is likely to retain that ranking compared with that of peers years later
57The Adult – Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality Studies of personality change over time find both continuity and discontinuity in personality during adulthoodThere is a good deal of cross-age consistency in personalityExample: the person who tends to be extraverted as a young adult is likely to be extraverted as an elderly adult, and the introvert is likely to remain introverted over the yearsCohort effects demonstrate that the historical context in which people grow up affects their personality development
58The Adult – Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality Personality growth from adolescence to middle adulthood is highlighted by less excitement seeking and openness to experience but more maturity (emotional stability, conscientiousness, and agreeableness)There is little personality change from middle adulthood to later adulthood except for decreased activity level and openness to experience and increased agreeableness
59The Adult – Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality What makes a personality stable over the lifespan?HeredityGenes contribute to individual differences in all five of the Big Five personality factorsLasting effects of childhood experiencesStable environmentsGene-environment correlationsOur genetic endowment may influence the kinds of experiences we have, and those experiences, in turn, may strengthen our genetically based predispositions
60The Adult – Continuity and Discontinuity in Personality What causes changes in personality over the lifespan?Biological factorsDiseases that cause nervous system deterioration can cause moodiness, irritability, and irresponsibilityChanges in the environmentPoor fit between person and environment
61Learning ObjectivesWhat is the focus of each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages?What factors can influence how each crisis is resolved?
63The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth According to Erikson, both maturational forces and social demands push humans through eight psychosocial crisesLater conflicts may be difficult to resolve if early conflicts were not resolved successfullyOptimal development results in the gain of a “virtue” or psychosocial strength
64The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth The path to adulthoodTrust vs. mistrustAutonomy vs. shame and doubtInitiative vs. guiltIndustry vs. inferiorityIdentity vs. role confusionIntimacy vs. isolationGenerativity vs. stagnationIntegrity vs. despair
65The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth Trust vs. mistrustInfants learn to trust others if their caregivers are responsive to their needsAutonomy vs. shame and doubtToddlers acquire a sense of themselves as individualsInitiative vs. guiltPreschoolers develop a sense of purpose and take pride in accomplishments
66The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth Industry vs. inferiorityElementary school children focus on mastering important skills and on evaluating their competenciesIdentity vs. role confusionThe adolescent integrates separate aspects of the self-concept into a coherent sense of self.
67The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth Intimacy vs. isolationCommitment to a shared identity with another personGenerativity vs. stagnationThe capacity to produce something that outlives you and to care about the welfare of future generations
68The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth Integrity vs. despairFinding a sense of meaning in life that will enable facing the inevitability of deathA sense of integrity is related to a high sense of psychological well-being and low levels of depression or despair
69The Adult – Eriksonian Psychosocial Growth Butler (1963) proposed that older adults engage in a process called life reviewA reflection on unresolved conflicts of the past in order to come to terms with themselves, find new meaning and coherence in life, and prepare for deathResearchers find that elders who engage in life review display a stronger sense of integrity and better overall adjustment and well-being than those who do not reminisce much and those who mainly stew about unresolved regrets
70The Adult – Midlife Crisis? Daniel Levinson (1986, 1996) proposed a stage theory of adulthoodBased on interviews with 40 menSuggested that adults build a life structure, or pattern of living, that is altered during transition periods approximately every 7 yearsThe transition period from age 40 to age 45 is a time of midlife crisisA person questions his life structure and questions where he has been and where he is goingResearchers find little support for Levinson’s claim that most adults experience a genuine crisis in their early 40s
71Learning ObjectivesHow do career paths change during adulthood?How do adults cope with age-related changes that affect their working selves?How are older adults influenced by retirement?How can we characterize successful aging?
72The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment According to Phillips’ research (1982), from age 21 to age 36, young adults progressed from wide-open exploration of different career possibilities to tentative or trial commitments to a stabilization of their choicesAdults often reach the peaks of their careers in their 40sJob performance is consistently correlated with the Big Five dimensions of conscientiousness, extraversion, and emotional stability
73The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Person–environment fit is critical to work performancePeople tend to perform poorly and become open to changing jobs when there is poor fit between their personality and aptitudes and the demands of their job or workplace
74The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Why do U.S. women earn about 80 cents for every dollar men earn?Traditional gender-role norms have prompted many women to subordinate career goals to family goalsEarnings are affected by interruptions for childbearing, reduced hours, relocations, or deferred promotionsWorkplace discrimination against womenTraditionally “female” jobs pay less than “male” jobs, even when the intellectual demands of the work are equalWomen who enter jobs with the same management degrees and salaries as men, and receive equal performance ratings, still do not rise as far in the organization or earn as much as their male peersWomen earn about 20% less than men, even controlling for the tendency of women to work less, step out of the workforce more, and enter lower-paying occupations
75The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment According to studies on aging workersThe job performance of workers in their 50s and 60s is largely similar overall to that of younger workersAge was largely unrelated to quality of task performance and creativity on the jobOlder workers outperformed younger workers in areas such as good citizenship and safety and had fewer problems with counterproductive behavior, aggression, substance use on the job, tardiness, and absenteeismOlder workers did not perform as well in training programs, possibly because many of them involved computer technology
76The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Aging workers may be able to maintain job performance because they use selective optimization with compensation to cope with agingSelection – focus on a limited set of goals and the skills most needed to achieve themOptimization – practice those skills to keep them sharpCompensation – develop ways around the need for other skills
77The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment In the U.S., roughly half of adults are out of the labor force by age 62-64, two thirds are out by age 65-69, and about 90% are out by age 70 or olderSince the 1960s, the average age of retirement has dropped from over 67 to 62Appears to be increasing as retiring baby boomers find that they need to continue working for financial reasons and as the age of eligibility for full Social Security benefits increases
78The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Some workers retire all at onceFor others, retirement is a process that plays out over a number of yearsMay retire gradually, cutting back work hours, taking part-time “bridge” jobs, cycling in and out of retirement several timesRetiring workers face two challengesAdjusting to the loss of their work roleDeveloping a satisfying, meaningful lifestyle in retirement
79The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Atchley (1976) proposed that adults transition from worker to retiree in phasesPreretirement phase – gather information, talk about retirement, plan for the futureHoneymoon phase – enjoy the newfound freedomDisenchantment phase – feel aimless, possibly unhappy as the novelty wears offReorientation phase – begin to put together a realistic and satisfying lifestyle
80The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Favorable adjustment to retirement is associated withVoluntary rather than involuntary retirementGood physical and mental healthFinancial resources to live comfortablyMarriage or strong social support
81The Adult – Vocational Development and Adjustment Women face challenges in their adjustment to retirementMay feel pressured to retire if their husbands retire or develop health problemsHave moved in and out of the workforce more and have not earned as much as men and therefore often find themselves with no pension and an inadequate income in retirementAre likely to outlive their husbands and end up living alone
82The Adult – Personality and Successful Aging Theories of successful aging offer insight to successful retirement and happy, fulfilling old ageActivity theory suggests that aging adults will find their lives satisfying to the extent that they can maintain their previous lifestyles and activity levels, either by continuing old activities or by finding substitutes (for example, by replacing work with hobbies, volunteer work, or other stimulating pursuits)According to this view, psychological needs do not really change as people enter old age: most aging individuals continue to want an active lifestyle
83The Adult – Personality and Successful Aging Disengagement theory suggests that successful aging involves a withdrawal of the aging individual from society that is satisfying to both parties – the individual and societyBecause the aging individual has needs that are different from those she once had, she seeks to leave old roles behind and to reduce activityMeanwhile, society both encourages and benefits from the older person’s disengagement, which makes room for the younger generation