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The blue economy: new threats and opportunities to sustainable use of marine resources Gillian Cambers, SPC, GCCA: PSIS project.

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Presentation on theme: "The blue economy: new threats and opportunities to sustainable use of marine resources Gillian Cambers, SPC, GCCA: PSIS project."— Presentation transcript:

1 The blue economy: new threats and opportunities to sustainable use of marine resources Gillian Cambers, SPC, GCCA: PSIS project

2 1. Regional vulnerability assessment 2. How will climate change affect fisheries and aquaculture resources? 3. How will these changes affect economic development and food security and how should we adapt? Outline

3 1. Approach used Projected changes to atmospheric and oceanic conditions Ecosystems supporting fish Fish stocks Implications for economic development, food security and livelihoods Adaptations, policies and investments needed to maintain productivity

4 Vulnerability assessment / 88 authors 36 institutions Summary for policy makers

5 Tuna Coral reef fish Freshwater fish Coastal aquaculture Pond aquaculture 2. How will climate change affect fisheries and aquaculture resources

6 Catch in million tonnes ~ USD 2.2 billion Projected effects on skipjack tuna Source: Lehodey et al. (2011) A2 emissions scenario Effects due to: Increases in sea surface temperature in eastern Pacific Shift of prime feeding areas to the east (convergence between the Warm Pool and Pacific Equatorial Divergence Province)

7 West (average) A ~ +10%0% ~ -20% East (average) A2 A %+40-45%+25-30% Changes relative to average catch Effects on skipjack tuna catches

8 2035 (-2 to -5%) 2050 (-20%) 2100 (-20 to -50%) Today Projected effects on coral reef fish A2 emissions scenario Effects due to: Increased sea surface temperature and more frequent bleaching Ocean acidification Greater runoff of nutrients due to higher rainfall Cyclones of greater intensity

9 Effects on freshwater fish catch A2 emissions scenario % +2.5 to +7.5% +2.5 to +12.5% Effects due to: Increased air temperature Higher flow rates Increased freshwater habitat

10 Pearls Shrimp Seaweed Marine ornamentals Coastal aquaculture commodities A2 emissions scenario Effects due to: Increased sea surface temperature Ocean acidification Greater runoff of nutrients Sea-level rise More-intense cyclones

11 Pond aquaculture commodities A2 emissions scenario Effects due to: Increased surface air temperature (faster growth rates in ponds) Higher rainfall (more places to build ponds) Tilapia

12 Resource WestEast Tuna Negligible Coastal fisheries Negligible Freshwater fisheries Aquaculture *Fish in ponds *Coastal commodities Summary of changes in production A2 emissions scenario

13 3. How will these changes affect economic development and food security and how should we adapt?

14 Small PICTs in east with greatest dependency on tuna should receive additional benefits! Losses of revenue and GDP occur mainly in large PICTs in west where tuna makes a relatively low contribution to economic development (due to size of economies) Key points

15 How should PICTs adapt? To reduce the threats To harness the opportunities

16 Adaptations (economic development) Ask Vessel owners fishing in PNA waters can purchase and trade fishing days depending on the location of the tuna. VDS has potential to be modified regularly to accommodate movement of tuna to the east ‘Vessel Days Scheme’ to manage effort of industrial tuna fleets Skipjack tuna move km along the equatorial Pacific, depending on ENSO events The vessel day effort management scheme allows the fleet to follow the fish and ensures that all PNA countries still receive some benefits

17 Adaptations (economic development) Energy audits of industrial fishing vessels Addresses likelihood of near-term rises in fuel costs Will assist national fleets from PNG and Solomon Islands that may have to go greater distances in the future to catch fish for their canneries

18 How could changes to coastal fisheries affect fish available for food security? Plans are to provide 35 kg of fish per person per year as populations grow Maintain traditional fish consumption where it is >35 kg

19 Where will the fish come from? By increasing access of coastal communities to tuna

20 Only tuna can fill the gap Coastal fisheries Freshwater fisheries Pond aquaculture Tuna (and bycatch) Fish needed for food security tonnes (x1000)

21 Adaptations (food security) Restore and sustain fisheries and their habitats Increase access to tuna for subsistence fishers with low-cost, inshore Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) Store and distribute low value tuna and bycatch from industrial fleets to urban areas Develop pond aquaculture

22 Summary Economic development East gains, where PICTs have high dependence, west has loses but effects on GDP are small Food security Contribution of coastal fisheries will decrease, but gap can be filled mainly by tuna Pond aquaculture favoured by climate change

23 Summary Adaptations Win-win adaptations available for economic development and food security Adaptations need to be implemented urgently for coastal fisheries to reduce natural and man made impacts and build resilience to climate change

24 Many Acknowledgements


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