Presentation on theme: "By Sangon Kim Maura Gerke. Location These regions range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Scattered throughout."— Presentation transcript:
Location These regions range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Scattered throughout the earth, several are remnants from the Pleistocene glaciation. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools) while lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation.
Have numerous small invertebrate animals (zooplanktons), both herbivores and carnivores. Finfish annd shellfish Their gills must be able to diffuse dissolved gasses while keeping the salts in the body fluids inside. Their scales reduce water diffusion through the skin: freshwater fish that have lost too many scales will die. They also have well developed kidneys to reclaim salts from body fluids before excretion.
Lack of rigid structures in freshwater plants. This is due to the density of the water (much higher than that of an open air environment), which 'pushes' against the plant in its daily life. This allows such plants to be more flexible against oncoming water tides, and prevents damage to the plant. As plants require a minimum concentration of gases in their diet such as carbon dioxide, they require a degree of buoyancy so that contact can be made with the open air environment. Adaptations may include; Air Spaces - Air spaces in the plant will decrease density and increase buoyancy. Broad Leaves - Broader leaves will spread their weight more evenly across the water surface allowing them to float. Waxy Cuticle - On the upper half to allow water to run off the surface to prevent the weight of the water dragging the leaves under the surface.
The sunlight supports the growth of rooted plants from shore to shore. Some pond plants grow entirely underwater or have parts that extend above the surface. Leafy plants may float on the surface. Other plants can grow along the pond edge. If left alone, ponds will eventually fill in with dirt and debris until they become solid land. It often takes hundreds of years for a pond to be transformed from a body of clear water into soil.
Three Other Features Eutrophication– an increase in the concentration of nutrient content to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the waterbody (increase in phytoplankton). Divided into three zones according to depth and distance from shoreline-1) littoral zone 2) limnetic zone 3) profundal zone A recent tectonic uplift of a mountain range can create bowl-shaped depressions that accumulate water and form lakes.
Value to Humans Critical to our water supply for homes, industry, recreation, and agriculture. Water reservoir Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro- electric power generation, aesthetic purposes, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use or domestic water supply.
The amount of water that these reservoirs contain is dropping significantly due to human activities. The pollutants from the air and un-processesed water disturb the pH and increase the factors in killing aquatic organisms. The global warming causes water temperature rise each year which depletes oxygen molecules needed by aquatic organisms to survive. The extensive use of fertilizers add excessive nutrients such as phosphorous and nitrogen that cause the eutrophication of the lake.
Animals Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Webbed, clawed feet and leathery bill Caiman Caiman crocodilus Leathery skin Carp Cyprinus carpio Large scales
Species Diversity Limited because separated from other water sources Many species of plankton Most life in shallower waters
Plants Cattails Typha latifolia Large spongy brown spike Lotus flower Nelumbo nucifera Rapidly spreading pink or white flowers Giant bulrush Schoenoplectus californicus 10ft tall sharp blades
Temperature Range Temperature varies in ponds and lakes seasonally. During the summer, the temperature can range from 4° C near the bottom to 22° C at the top. During the winter, the temperature at the bottom can be 4° C while the top is 0° C (ice). In between the two layers, there is a narrow zone called the thermocline where the temperature of the water changes rapidly. During the spring and fall seasons, there is a mixing of the top and bottom layers, usually due to winds, which results in a uniform water temperature of around 4° C. This mixing also circulates oxygen throughout the lake. Of course there are many lakes and ponds that do not freeze during the winter, thus the top layer would be a little warmer.
Precipitation Rain and snow replenish freshwater lakes and ponds Moisture in the air from evaporation creates clouds and causes more precipitation Some precipitation seeps into the ground but other becomes runoff into ponds and lakes
Works cited Johnson, Larry. Lamb Annette. “Pond Life” 2000. 42explore. 1 Sep. 2010 http://42explore.com/pond.htmhttp://42explore.com/pond.htm “Pond” 2005 Island Creeks. 1 Sep. 2010. http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/pond.htm http://www.fcps.edu/islandcreekes/ecology/pond.htm “LAKES AND PONDS.” Biomes of the World 2003. Explore Biodiversity and Wild Classroom. 1 Sep. 2010. http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/lake.html http://www.thewildclassroom.com/biomes/lake.html
Works Cited Ponds and lakes. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/lakes/index.htm http://www.mbgnet.net/fresh/lakes/index.htm Ponds and lakes: plants. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.bcgrasslands.org/grasslands/pondsla kes/plants.htm Sen, D. (2010, April 2). Freshwater biome abiotic factors. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/list_6190259_freshwater- biome-abiotic-factors.html