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NOTE: This presentation was not made for public use. Please do not use this presentation without my permission and the permission of each of the authors of the photographs, quotes, and other materials that they contain. Thank you, Vicki Hughes Labs, Activities, and WS for this presentation: none
The HYDROSPHERE Water covers 75% of Earth Water covers 75% of Earth EARTH’S WATER (EOG L21)
Water = pH 7 (neutral) 15.1 Properties of Water pH Lab
Polar = stronger charge on one side A water molecule is polar.
15.1 hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
Surface Tension = Tendency to avoid separating of molecules on the surface – Due to hydrogen bonding – Cohesion – water’s attraction to other water Water on a Penny
Density of Water Cold water contracts and its density increases. Below 4˚C, the density of water starts to decrease. Frozen water is less dense than cold water.
Density of Water Density allows ice to float in cold water.
Water Expands when Frozen Ice is an open framework of water molecules arranged like a honeycomb.
– When ice melts, the framework collapses, and the water molecules pack closer together, making liquid water more dense than ice. Summer Air temperatures are warm. Water at the surface is warm. Deep water is cool. How ponds freeze:
Fall Air temperatures are cooling. Water at the surface cools to 4 o C and sinks because it is more dense. 4oC4oC
Winter Air temperatures are cold. Water at the surface freezes and expands causing it to float. 4oC4oC
High Specific Heat – takes a lot of energy to change the temperature Ocean Temperature Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Brrr! Ahhh…
Structure of the Hydrosphere 97% of all water on Earth is in the oceans (80% on EOG) Salt Water Nonpotable Potable = drinkable Nonpotable = not drinkable
Structure of the Hydrosphere 3% is Freshwater Potable Of all the freshwater in the world about 75% is frozen and unavailable to drink without alteration
Structure of the Hydrosphere Groundwater is most of the remaining freshwater. Groundwater is the water that exists in large cavernous layers from which we usually drink. When droughts occur groundwater becomes too low.
Structure of the Hydrosphere The remaining 0.02% of all water on Earth makes up our lakes, rivers, ponds, atmosphere, and soil water. Soil water is water that is held within the tiny spaces in the soil.
Delta = deposited soil from a river that build up until it rises above the water. Base level = lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel. Headwaters = all of the streams that combine to make a larger stream.
Tributary = a stream or river that empties into another stream or river. tributaries Rutherfordton Broad River
WATERSHEDS = the areas of land in which all rain that falls contributes to the same stream. All major watersheds drain to the ocean. WATERSHEDS = the areas of land in which all rain that falls contributes to the same stream. All major watersheds drain to the ocean. Flash: Rivers Shapers of Earth OCEAN
RIVER BASIN = the area of land in which all rain that falls flows into a large river. Flash: Rivers Shapers of Earth Broad River
WATER BENEATH THE SURFACE Fact: The ground you walk on is not solid! Fact: There are countless tiny pore spaces between grains of soil. Fact: The spaces fill with water. Fact: The water in the spaces collects and moves. Fact: There are countless tiny pore spaces between grains of soil. Fact: The spaces fill with water. Fact: The water in the spaces collects and moves.
Distribution and Movement of Water Underground When rain falls… …some of the water runs off, …some of the water evaporates, …and the rest soaks into the ground. When rain falls… …some of the water runs off, …some of the water evaporates, …and the rest soaks into the ground. How much water soaks into the ground depends on… …steepness of slopes, …natures of surface materials, …intensity of the rainfall …type and amount of vegetation. How much water soaks into the ground depends on… …steepness of slopes, …natures of surface materials, …intensity of the rainfall …type and amount of vegetation.
Water Table = upper limit of the zone of saturation Zone of Aeration = area where soil is not saturated with water. Distribution of Underground Water
Zone of Saturation = area where water fills all open spaces in sediment and rock (GROUNDWATER) GROUNDWATER
(Underground) Movement of Water Subsurface Material: Porosity = % of ground consisting of pore spaces. Can still block the movement of water underground.
Permeability = allows fluid to travel through Groundwater moves by twisting and turning through pores that are connected.
Aquifer = permeable rock that allows the movement of underground water. Aquitard = impermeable layers that prevent the movement of underground water. AQUIFER AQUiTARD
Groundwater moves more slowly when pore spaces are smaller. Goes through too fast!Goes through too slow!Goes through just right.
Groundwater is NOT renewable! 65% used for crop irrigation When groundwater is removed faster than it can be replenished ground may sink as water is removed. India
WATER POLLUTION (EOG L24) Point-Source Pollution = comes from one specific source. Easier to identify, so easier to control. Factories Dishwater from homes Leaking Underground Oil or Gas TanksPower Plants Dumping Heated WaterMistakes at Wastewater Treatment Plants Damaged Wastewater pipes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phmN-IpR3xw
SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION NONPoint-Source Pollution = comes from several sources. Difficult to identify, so difficult to control. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HDxNy65pSOE
HUGHES POND There’s been a death at Hughes’ Pond! Did Wild Willie die from drinking unhealthy pond water or was he MURDERED! Let’s look at the suspects! Bathing Bertha Farmer John Speedy Sam Professor Acid R. Base C. E. Owe Mr. Bubbles WATER QUALITY (EOG L25)
Evaluating Water System Health HUGHES POND Bob’s Mission: Determine if Wild Willie’s death was the result of drinking unhealthy pond water or a MURDER! Meet Detective Bob.
PHYSICAL INDICATORS Temperature: First Bob must examine the temperature of the pond. Bob knows that the temperature must be cool for the pond to be healthy. Cool water can hold more oxygen than warm water. More oxygen means healthier water. Hot water will also indicate that Bathing Bertha killed Willie! Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and water clarity. Good! The water is cool.
HUGHES POND pH: Next Bob must examine the pH of the pond. Bob knows that pH measures the acid or base. The pH should be neutral. Neutral is 7.0 on the pH scale. Anything higher or lower would indicate an unhealthy pond … and Professor Acid R. Base! Perfect! We appear to have a nice pH of 7.0.
HUGHES POND Dissolved Oxygen: Next Bob must examine how much oxygen is dissolved in the water of the pond. Bob knows that the pond must have adequate dissolved oxygen to be healthy. Low water temperature should mean we have high dissolved oxygen content. Mr. Bubbles could have sucked all the dissolved oxygen out AND murdered Wild Willie! High Oxygen content. Excellent!
Turbidity: Now Bob must examine the turbidity (clarity) of the pond. Bob knows that high turbidity is very unhealthy. HUGHES POND I see a bit of algae which can cause high turbidity… Or Speedy Sam could have stirred up the pond! But it doesn’t appear to be an ALGAL BLOOM (fast growth of algae) so I think we’re ok.
HUGHES POND CHEMICAL INDICATORS: Nitrates = nitrogen compounds that plants use for growth. If we have too many nitrates in the pond, the pond will become overcome with pond scum and other unwanted plant life. Farmer John always carries fertilizer in his pockets. He could have killed Willie and dropped some in he pond! Lucky for you Farmer John. The nitrates are normal!
HUGHES POND BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS: Organisms or parts of organisms that are sensitive to water health. Healthy trout and low levels of chlorophyll a are indicators of good health. If I can sneak up on the trout in this pond I can see if it appears healthy or unhealthy. Maybe C.E.Owe killed Willie to hide waste dumped from his factory! Excellent! There’s plenty of trout and they appear to be healthy and happy.
It’s E. Vill Bill! He’s the culprit! I’m pleased to report that I studied the physical indicators, the chemical indicators and the biological indicators and I must report that the pond appears to be healthy. That only leaves one suspect!
What kind of detective are you? Identify which of the following bodies of water are healthy. Clues: pH = 5.0, high turbidity, low oxygen, high nitrates Deductions = high temperature, algal blooms UNHEALTHY!
Clues: pH = 7.3, low temperature, high chlorophyll a UNHEALTHY !
Melbourne, AUSTRALIA Flash Flood, AZ Florence, MA FLOOD!
Natural Levees = landform that parallels some streams.
FLOOD CONTROL Artificial Levees Flood-Control Dam Limited Development Levee construction. New Orleans 1727 Oklahoma Riverside forests help to suppress overflowing water during floods
What happens when Flood Controls fail?
Some of the following photos are graphic. Katrina + Poor Levees = Fatal Failure
Sinkhole = depression produced in a region where groundwater has removed soluble rock. The vast Qattara west of Cairo, Egypt is the largest natural sinkhole in the world, measuring 80km long by 120km wide. In Soviet Russia, the ground moves you. Berezniki’s sinkhole began in 1986 and just grows worse with each passing year. Guatamala City Venezuela How Sinkholes form: oLs sI