Presentation on theme: "Writing to Explain C – E – R Model"— Presentation transcript:
1Writing to Explain C – E – R Model Claim – Evidence – Reasoning
2C-E-R in Science Writing ( Claim – Evidence – Reasoning) Claim: A conclusion that answers the original questionEvidence: Specific data that supports the claim. The data needs to be appropriate and sufficient to support the claim.Reasoning: A justification that links the claim and evidence. It shows why the data count as evidence by using appropriate and sufficient scientific/social science principles.Department of ScienceDepartment of Social Sciences
3Observation vs. Inference—Definitions Observation—Using all your senses (not just eyes) to collect and record information about our world.Observations = EVIDENCEInference—Using observations to reach a logical conclusions.Inferences = EXPLANATION“An observation is what you see, feel, taste, hear or smell. An inference is what you think.”Bell, Randy, Teaching the Nature of Science Through Process Skills, Pearson Education, Inc., 2008, p. 41The colors and wording in this slide feed into the next slide. These are the words used in the Next Generation Sunshine State Standard for Science. This terminology is also relevant for social science.
4Observations and Inferences in NGSSS Science Begin in Grade 1, continue through Grade 5SC.1.N.1.2 Using the five senses as tools, make careful observations, describe objects in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion, and compare their observations with others.SC.2.N.1.5 Distinguish between empirical observation (what you see, hear, feel, smell, or taste) and ideas or inferences (what you think).SC.3.N.1.6 Infer based on observation.SC.3.N.1.7 Explain that empirical evidence is information, such as observations or measurements, that is used to help validate explanations of natural phenomena.SC.4.N.1.6 Keep records that describe observations made, carefully distinguishing actual observations from ideas and inferences about the observations.SC.4.N.1.7 Recognize and explain that scientists base their explanations on evidence.SC.5.N.2.1 Recognize and explain that science is grounded in empirical observations that are testable; explanation must always be linked with evidenceHere we have multiple benchmarks from grades 1 to 5 that reference the understanding of and differentiating between observations and inference
5Observation vs. Inference – Boy in the Water To use in conjunction with the Anticipatory Guide in ISN…Next to each statement (found in their ISN), participants write an ‘I’ or ‘O’ in regards to the Boy in the Water picture – Is this statement an inference or an observation?Review definitions of an observation and an inference.Go through statements – thus clarifying observation vs. inference.
6Our Observations and Inferences Develop a T-chart and place O and I on itO IUnder O list three observations about the pictureUnder I list three inferences about the pictureShare with your tableDiscuss: Did you and your table write observationsthat are actually inferences, or vice versa?Did they write observations that are actually inferences, or vice versa? This is a very common mistake. Our brains quickly jump to inferences and students tend to do the same thing. They must be explicitly taught to distinguish between the two.The Mystery Tubes activity is considered a “discrepant event.” It’s a quick activity to catch the students’ attention and make them think. Invite participants to give their input on whether you should give students the answer to a discrepant event. Many researchers believe that giving them the answer cuts off their curiosity, while other researchers believe that not giving the answer leads to frustration. Instead, with older children, have them design a way that they can figure out what might be in the tube without opening it. This mimics what scientists do in the real world—they may go a lifetime without getting a full understanding of what’s happening “inside” a science concept.
73. The tree branch is broken. Directions: Place an ‘I’ before the statements that are inferences and an ‘O’ before the statements that are observations OR you may wish to make a T-chart.1. The boy is in the water.2. The weather is cold.3. The tree branch is broken.4. If the boy crawled out of the water, the goat would kick him.5. The boy fell off the branch.6. A goat is standing by the pond.7. The branch will fall on the boy’s head.8. The boy fell off the rocks.9. There is a sailboat in the water.10. The sailboat belongs to the boy.11. The goat will soon leave the pond.12. The tree by the pond has no leaves on it.13. There are three rocks in the pond.14. The tree by the pond is dead.15. If it rains, leaves will grow on the tree.16. The goat kicked the boy into the pond.
8Observation vs. Inference – Boy in the Water To use in conjunction with the Anticipatory Guide in ISN…Next to each statement (found in their ISN), participants write an ‘I’ or ‘O’ in regards to the Boy in the Water picture – Is this statement an inference or an observation?Review definitions of an observation and an inference.Go through statements – thus clarifying observation vs. inference.
9Sample Claim Evidence Reasoning Student Response Claim: The boy fell from the broken branch on the dead tree into the water while trying to retrieve his toy sailboat.Evidence: The tree branch is broken and the boy is in the water in a position directly below the branch. The boy in the water is also wearing a shirt. There is a sailboat toy in the water and the tree appears to have no leaves.Reasoning: No leaves on the tree may indicate that the tree is dead. This would mean that the branch would be very weak since leaves provide the tree with energy. The boy climbed the tree to get his sail boat and his weight, due to the force from the pull of gravity, was greater than what the dead branch could hold, so it broke and he fell into the water. The waves that were made after falling into the water, pushed the sailboat away from the boy. Where the boy is sitting must be in water because it makes up most of our Earth and sailboats float on water. Because he is wearing a shirt, he most likely did not want to get wet.The Department of Mathematics and Science