Presentation on theme: "University of Minnesota Institute on Community Integration"— Presentation transcript:
1University of Minnesota Institute on Community Integration Person-Centered Services and Supports: Ensuring the Opportunity for Self-Determination and a High Quality of Life for ALL Individuals with Disabilities:Brian Abery, Ph.D.University of MinnesotaInstitute on Community IntegrationThe PAR Approach to use for Facilitators/Trainers of this Training PackagePrinciples-Presenting concepts that you want DSPs to know and understand and what skills to develop. Sharing several nuggets of important information about a specific topic's) from the slide participants are viewing.Actions/Activities-Listing what “in-classroom” exercises (e.g., small and large group discussion, role playing, simulation, reflection, etc.) to do and what handout(s) to use; cite any outside “homework” you suggest that will reinforce the principles and help learners reach their outcomes.Resources-Listing the specific handouts or other materials you are drawing upon for this slide. Identifying any additional resources (e.g., web sites, books, articles, other curricula, etc.) learners can use to (or that you used) to enhance the principles they are learning and skills they are developing.TrainerPrinciples:Create a warm, inviting learning environment for the participants.Provide a capsule statement of what you hope to accomplish by the end of the TrainingActions/Activities:Pre-workshop:Have participants sign in.Hand out a folder with the “Power Point slide presentation notes, a set of handouts for the training, a list of attendeesWorkshop:Welcome everyone to the Find, Choose, and Keep Great DSPs training workshop.Introduce yourselves as the facilitators for the workshop.Share with the group: We are very excited to have you all here today to share your stories and learn about this Great new product, entitled, find, choose, and keep great dsps.Resources:LCD projector for the computer and screen or white wallBoth versions of the Find/Choose/Keep ToolkitsWhite board or flip chart with markersFood/drinks for participantsFolders, name tags, pens, and paper for participantsCD player with a variety of music (e.g. soft classical, folk, Cuban, African, rock, country). Play music for participants as they get their folders and sign in.
2What is the Connection Person-Centered Supports Quality of life Self-Determination
3Functions of the Quality of Life Construct? Sensitizing notion: gives society a sense of reference and guidance from the individual’s perspective, focusing on the person and the individual’s environment;Social construct used as an overriding principle to enhance an individual’s well-being and facilitate collaboration for change at the societal level; andUnifying theme that provides us with a common language and a systematic framework to apply quality of life concepts and principles.
4Core Q of L Domains Desired states of: Emotional well-being Interpersonal relations,Material well-being,Personal development,Physical well-being,Social inclusion,Self-determination and rights.
5Differences in Q of L Q of L differs for the individual Over time andBetween individuals.A good “quality of life’’ may mean different things to different people.
6Q of L & Self-Determination Q of L relates to:Decisions/choices by individuals and, wherever possible,Personal control over their:ActivitiesPrograms & Interventions, andEnvironments.Acceptance of the right to self-determination on the part of consumers has major implications for self-image, motivation, self-expression and control, as well as health.
7What is Q of L Not About? Keeping people safe at all costs Without the chance to take a risk there is little dignity to life.Irving Martin, self-advocate
8What is Self-Determination? The basic rights of all human beings include their freedom, equality, and power to execute their will…These rights are distinguishable from people themselves and can be given up to others, but only under conditions in which the individual gives their consent…Situations in which basic rights are never granted or when a person is subjected to the arbitrary and/or absolute will of another are a form of slaveryLocke, John (1690) Two Treatises of Government
9What is Self-Determination? The attitudes, abilities, and knowledge to set goals for oneself and effectively work toward the achievement of those goals.Michael Ward, Ph.D.Self-determination is believing in yourself, making your own decisions, and being responsible for themHigh School Student, North DakotaPower, choice, and most important, the right to chase our dreams...The chance to direct our lives the way we want to, not the way others expect us to...Irving Martin, Self-Advocate, Minnesota
10Operational Definitions Self-determination refers to individuals exercising the degree of control over their lives that they desire within those areas of life that are important to them.Abery & Stancliffe (2003)
11What is Self-Determination NOT? Self-Determination is not:Equivalent to one’s level of personal controlAn “either/or” experienceParent’s, family members, or other substitute decision-makers exercising control over the life of a person with a disability
12Common Misconceptions about Self-Determination Self-determination implies the independent performance of behaviors (either/or argument)Self-determination is primarily about making choicesThere are a specific set of skills, knowledge, and attitudes/beliefs NECESSARY for self-determinationSelf-determination is a program you can implemente.g., person-centered support planning, independent budgets
13Self-Determination & Personal Control How are they are different? Shared ControlMost individuals do not desire to have complete control but wish to share it in some areas with trusted others.Ceding Control to OthersIn some areas of life a person may not particularly value having control and voluntarily cede it to others.In other areas they may voluntarily cede control because they do not have the skills to make informed decisionsIndividual Differences/Change Across TimeAreas of life over which personal control is valued are different for each person and typically change over time.
14What is Self-Determination? Control over day-to-day decisionswhat to wearwhat to eatwhat time to go to bedControl over long-term decisionswhere and with whom to livewhere to workWhat type of work to do
15What is Self-Determination? Self-determination is about supporting people to make the things that they want to happen…actually happen in their lives.
16Tripartite Model of Self-Determination ImportanceDesiredDegreeof ControlExercise of ControlChanges overTIME
17Self-Determination Competencies Self-Determination: An Ecological ProcessPersonSelf-Determination CompetenciesSkillsAttitudes/BeliefsKnowledgeMacrosystemFamilyMicrosystemSchool/WorkPeer GroupExosystemMesosystemResidental Serv.Exercise of ControlDesiredDegreeof ControlImportanceSELF-DETERMINATIONChanges over Time
18Missing Factor: The Environment Most agree that many (though not all) people with disabilities living in the community do not experience a high quality of life.Reasons are multifaceted:Some residential environments support self-determination and a high Q of L.Many do not as they are full of barriers to an individual living the type of life that they desire.Rules and regulations, often design to “protect” persons with disabilities often serve as barriers to a high Q of L and self-determination
19What We KnowTo date, interventions designed to support a higher Q of L and greater self-determination for persons with disabilities have primarily been focused on teaching persons with disabilities skills…requiring/asking them to change.Dangers related to this approach…Some people may not be able to acquire the capacities being taught…does this mean they are not capable of self-determination and a higher Q of L?
20What We KnowPrevious research suggests a number of ecological characteristics related to a high Q of L and self-determination including:Organizational climateAgency policies & regulations,The knowledge, skills, and attitudes/beliefs of DSPsThe behaviors of DSPsThe personal capacities and behaviors of supervisory staff and organizational leadership
21Mediating FactorsSocial Capital: Network of social ties, supports, relationships, affiliations, and social-behavioral reciprocity that support one to achieve desired outcomesBonding: Affiliating with others who share common characteristicsBridging: Affiliating with others who have different characteristicsSocial Inclusion: Societal acceptance of persons with disabilities in school, work, and community contexts.Degree of inclusion has an impact on Q of L and opportunities for self-determination
22Mediating FactorsAccess to and effective implementation of person-centered services and supportsMost residential and employment support services are not person-centered or individualized but…InstitutionalizedISP more, often than not, is an acronym for an institutionalized service/support plan rather than an individualized/person-centered plan
24What has Gone Wrong?Most efforts to support an enhanced Q of L and greater SD have focused almost exclusively on facilitating changes at level 1 – person centeredpractices
25Shift in Goals: A Need for Systems Change GOAL: Create person centered systems that support person directed services.Changes in rules and practice should be driven by learning what is and is not working for individuals.Using a small set of value-based skills at all levels of the system will drive change throughout the system.Using these skills in conjunction with selected quality management and organizational development tools will improve quality of life and increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
26Need to Refocus our Efforts Training in person-centered planningTraining in person centered thinkingTraining + Development & support of coachesTraining coaches + sustainedengagement of organizational leadershipTraining, coaches, organizational leadership + sustained engagement of system leadershipSmull et al, (2009)
27Why Training Alone Fails to Work Training, no matter how good, is the classic “rock in the pond” (Smull, 2006).The rock, tossed in the pond makes waves.The bigger the rock, the bigger the waves.But no matter how big the rock, the pond eventually goes still again.
28Why Training Alone Fails to Work Most training approaches result in water quickly returning to an undisturbed state.“Training in person-centered plan writing, by itself, results in better paper, not better lives.”Smull, Bourne & Sanderson 2009
29Need for Systems Change Goal is to have the person-centered thinking used in everyday workAt ALL levels of the organization & systemOnly in this manner will person-centered plans person-centered services and supports serve as the basis of the day-to day, moment-to-moment interactions greater self-determination and a higher quality of life.
30Need for Systems Change Strongest predictor of success is the degree to which leadership engages in the effort.Management & Leadership needs to:Embrace person centered thinkingHelp determine what is and isn’t working andShare responsibility for achieving the vision of delivering person-centered service on a day-to-day, moment-to-moment basis
31We’re All in this Together All persons within the system fromDSPsSupervisorsUpper level managementBoard membersCounty and state managers/leadersneed to learn what is working and not working both within a specific organization and the system as a whole as far as applying person centered thinking.Senior management needs to hear what DSPs and supervisors have learned and then act on the learning.
32We’re All in this Together System/Organizational leaders will typically discover that:Though there are many changes that they can make at an organization level…Some of what is not working reflects the need for system change.Changes are needed in the system rules, practices, and structures.Behavior (1=never to 4=frequently), skills (1=not at all to 4= very well), attitudes (1=strongly disagree to 4 = strongly agree)
33We’re All in this Together Currently all too much of what goes on in the delivery of supports to persons with IDD is about:Protecting and minimizing liability rather than enhancing livesEXAMPLE: Protection plansIntroduced to protect persons with IDDToday more often serve to eliminate persons with disabilities experiencing ANY level of risk thereby protecting support organizations
34We’re All in this Together Current state of affairs not just fault of support organizations, but rather…A reaction to many of the current rules and regulations by which they are required to abide.Many of which fall under what Smull & Associates would label as “stupid stuff.”
35We’re All in this Together Efforts to develop person-centered systems require system leaders and managers to actively engage in and apply the same person- centered thinking in their work that supervisors and DSPs are applying.
36We’re All in this Together The degree of engagement from leadership is the strongest predictor of successNot just leadership within provider organizationsCounty and State must be involved.
37From Individual to… Systems Change Smull, Bourne & Sanderson 2009
38What Will it Take? Capacity: Four components: The discrete characteristics that enable a system/organization to change in the desired direction (Hatch, 2009)Four components:Human CapitalSocial CapitalProgram CoherenceResources
39Human CapitalThose personal capacities possessed by members of the organization:KnowledgeSkillsCommitmentDispositionOther abilities
40Social Capital Closely linked to human capital Component of capacity inherent in the relationships between and among:Members of an organizationMembers of other organizations with whom they work
41Social Capital Four elements: Stimulated by: Mutual understanding Development of collective competenceFostering of care and concernSupport for the alignment of mutual goalsGameron, Gunther & Williams, (2005)Stimulated by:TrustReciprocityOpen communication and flow of information
42Program CoherenceThe degree to which staff (at all levels) and resources within an organization are coordinated and integrated via a common framework (Newmann, et a., 2001)Organization embraces a common framework for the delivery of support services.Working conditions support incorporation of person-centered thinking into everyday practice.Sufficient time and resources are devoted by the organization to fully implement the person-centered thinking and practices.
43ResourcesThe physical and organizational tools that an organization has at its disposal to make its improvement goals a reality (Newmann, et al, 2001)Adequate staffing levelsStaff stabilityProfessional development opportunities