Presentation on theme: "Grade 10 Objective 1. 1All of these procedures should be followed for lab safety except — A immediately reporting all dangerous activity B wearing gloves."— Presentation transcript:
Grade 10 Objective 1
1All of these procedures should be followed for lab safety except — A immediately reporting all dangerous activity B wearing gloves when necessary C using eye protection as needed D putting used chemicals back in the original containers
2The reason for wafting or fanning a small amount of chemical vapors toward the nose as a means to detect odors in a test tube is to — A avoid experimental error from excessive loss of mass of reactants or products B avoid splashing chemicals into the face of any person C protect the respiratory tract against potentially harmful vapors D determine the relative strength of the odor before smelling directly
3Laboratory equipment is cleaned and properly stored after use primarily so that — A chemical products can be measured and recorded as data B time is saved in setting up the next experiment C toxic materials can be kept in the laboratory D the possibility of contamination in the laboratory is minimized
Potential Hazards of Petroleum Naphtha, Hexane, Toluene, and Acetone 4The ingredients described above are used to make a bonding agent. The most important safety precaution to take when applying this bonding agent is to — F dry it with a small flame G work in a well-ventilated area H cover the work area with newspaper J wear a lab coat May cause eye, skin, nose, and throat irritation. Inhaling or swallowing vapors may be harmful or fatal. Known to cause birth defects. Vapor may ignite explosively.
Powerful Plankton The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has created an experimental marine fuel cell that could produce enough electricity to power ocean-monitoring devices. This fuel cell runs on seawater and sediment, with the help of plankton. Some plankton on the surface of ocean sediments use dissolved oxygen to break down organic matter, releasing energy; this is an aerobic process. The plankton in the deeper sediments break down organic matter without using oxygen; this is an anaerobic process. These two processes create a difference in voltage between the surface of the sediment and the sediment farther down in the seabed. The voltage difference can be used to produce electricity—up to 5.0×10 –2 watts of power. Energy supplied by this type of fuel cell can be obtained as long as there is organic matter in the sediment. 5Which safety precaution should be observed while analyzing sediment from a marine aquarium? A Wear rubber gloves B Use a fume hood C Avoid using glassware D Have a fire extinguisher nearby
6A safety checklist for this activity should include the presence of a proper fire extinguisher and all the following items except a — A fire blanket B receptacle for broken glass C laboratory apron D squeeze bottle An activity is designed that allows a student to observe the temperature changes in a cup of water. A piece of metal taken from a beaker of boiling water is placed in a cup containing water at room temperature. A glass alcohol thermometer is used to measure temperature changes.
7 In what part of this process should safety precautions be planned? F Q G R H S J T
8All of these should be considered when storing acids EXCEPT the — A correct labeling of chemicals B safety of people in the building C shape of the storage containers D separation of incompatible chemicals
9The diagram shows a standard technique for dispensing liquid in a laboratory. What is the main reason that liquid should be dispensed from a reagent bottle in this manner? F The liquid is slowly heated by friction. G The liquid’s increased surface area absorbs more oxygen. H The stirring rod keeps the liquid from splashing. J The beaker causes liquids of different densities to form layers.
10The chart shows the storage compatibility of a few chemicals. According to this chart, which pair of chemicals can be safely stored together? F Vinyl acetate and amines G Nitric acid and caustics H Sulfuric acid and ammonia J Organic acid and ketones
11Which of these was most likely observed during this investigation? A The cool water moved into the warm water. B The water that moved up was less dense. C The warm water had molecules that moved fast. D The water moved because heat rises. For a classroom investigation, students followed these instructions: 1. Fill a jar with cool water and add blue dye. 2. Fill an identical jar with warm water. 3. Place a piece of cardboard over the jar with cool water. 4. Invert the jar with cool water and place it over the jar with warm water. 5. Remove cardboard and allow liquids to mix.
12Which set of materials would be the most appropriate to use in testing the effects of stirring on the dissolving rate of a solute? A Flask, petri dish, metal rod, scale, magnifying glass B Beaker, glass rod, balance, graduated cylinder, timer C Test tube, filter paper, funnel, flask, ring stand D Flask, Bunsen burner, ring stand, petri dish, thermometer
13Which of these is a hypothesis that can be tested through experimentation? F Bacterial growth increases exponentially as temperature increases. G A fish’s ability to taste food is affected by the clarity of aquarium water. H Tadpoles’ fear of carnivorous insect larvae increases as the tadpoles age. J The number of times a dog wags its tail indicates how content the dog is.
14Which of the following pieces of equipment would be most appropriate for measuring the volume of a marble? AC BD
15Objects of the same mass but of different sizes and shapes were dropped from a given height. Their rates of free fall were measured and recorded. Which of the following is most likely the question this experiment was designed to answer? F How does height affect the force of gravity? G How does gravity affect objects of different densities? H How do mass and weight affect falling objects? J How do size and shape affect an object’s rate of free fall?
16Which lab setup would be appropriate to use in heating 100 mL of water to the boiling point? A A 10 mL test tube held above a Bunsen burner B A 200 mL beaker placed on a hot plate C A thermal coil inside a 100 mL cylinder D A sealed 300 mL flask in a warm-water bath
17In experiments, a benefit of larger sample sizes would be more — A variables B representative data C time per group D control groups
18The following boxes represent a field. Which pattern for collecting 10 samples would provide the best data for identifying the types of plants in a field? A C B D
19An engineer has created a new engine for race cars. It is necessary to know which fuel mixture will allow the engine to run at its peak performance. Which experimental design is best for this investigation? F Use one fuel mixture on the engine and measure its performance G Use one fuel mixture on many types of engines and measure their performance H Use various fuel mixtures on the engine and measure its performance J Use various fuel mixtures on many types of engines and measure their performance
20 Which equipment is most useful when measuring the two environmental changes mentioned above? F Barometer and voltmeter G Light meter and barometer H Voltmeter and thermometer J Thermometer and light meter Hypothesis: At the end of each summer, Texas red oak (Quercus buckleyi) leaves turn red and fall off the trees. This is most likely caused by changes in air temperature and sunlight intensity.
21 Which of the following is most useful in determining the kinetic energy of a 50 g battery-powered car traveling a distance of 10 m? A Beaker B Voltmeter C Thermometer D Stopwatch
22An experiment was designed to determine the effects of cool temperatures on the germination of piñon pine seeds. Which of these variables was LEAST important to control in this experiment? F The brand name of the refrigerator used to produce the cool temperatures G The number of seeds used in each group H The amount of time that the seeds were exposed to cool temperatures J The temperature range used to define cool temperatures
23Which is the best estimate of the volume of solution released from the burette? A 47.3 mL B 47.7 mL C 48.3 mL D 48.7 mL
24Which of the following shows the length of a rubber strip measured precisely to 2.22 centimeters?
25Which of the following will allow measurement of a liquid’s volume with the greatest precision? A 50 mL cylinder graduated in 1 mL increments B 100 mL cylinder graduated in 0.5 mL increments C 100 mL cylinder graduated in 1 mL increments D 200 mL cylinder graduated in 5 mL increments
26Which of the following procedures should be used in finding the mass of crystals? A Pour the excess crystals back into the original container B Put the crystals on the outer part of the balance pan for massing C Pour wastes down the sink with plenty of water D Use weighing paper on the balance pan
27The cloud conditions above are typical of locations near a warm front. According to these data, what are the most likely sky conditions for Waco? A Cirrus clouds B Altostratus clouds C Stratus clouds D Clear skies Typical Sky Conditions Location in Relation To Front Distance From Front (km) Sky Conditions Ahead1000Cirrus clouds Ahead500Altostratus clouds Ahead50Stratus clouds Behind500Clear
28A cold front moves from Abilene to College Station in 6.0 hours. What is its average speed in km/h? F km/h G 16 km/h H 58 km/h J 67 km/h
29 What volume should be reported for the solution in this graduated cylinder? F 64.0 mL G 56.2 mL H 56.0 mL J 50.6 mL
Density of Seawater from the Gulf of Mexico 30 The chart shows the density of seawater samples collected from the Gulf of Mexico by four different groups. Which group’s data are most precise? A Group 1 B Group 2 C Group 3 D Group 4 Density (g/mL) Group 1Group 2Group 3Group 4 Trial Trial Trial Average
31Which of these axes would be best to use to analyze these data? AC BD Yeast Metabolism of Sugar Time (minutes) Estimated Metabolic Rate (number of bubbles produced per minute) SucroseMaltoseFructoseGalactose
32The picture shows how a solution can be dispensed by a pipette. How much solution was released by this pipette? A 0.01 mL B 0.12 mL C 0.14 mL D 0.23 mL
33According to the graph, what partial pressure of oxygen would saturate 67% of hemoglobin in the blood? A 2.8 kPa B 5.2 kPa C 8.7 kPa D 12.4 kPa
34During a severe drought a dry lake was explored for fossils. The diagram represents the fossils uncovered and the layers they were in. According to this information, this area was once a — A forest that was replaced by a freshwater lake B freshwater lake that was replaced by a desert C saltwater sea that was replaced by a forest D freshwater lake that was replaced by a forest
35According to the graph, about how much hemoglobin would be saturated at an O 2 pressure of 7.3 kPa? A 32% B 67% C 89% D 92%
36Observing an approaching thunderstorm and using a stopwatch, a student finds that it takes 8.40 seconds for thunder to be heard after a lightning bolt strikes. The student has learned that it takes 3.0 seconds for sound to travel 1000 m. How far away is the storm? F 119 m G 185 m H 2800 m J 8400 m
37From 1942 to 1945, U.S. nickels were made of an alloy that contained 35% silver, 9.0% manganese, and the rest copper, by mass. If one of these nickels has a mass of 5.0 grams, what is the mass of the copper? A 0.5 g B 1.8 g C 2.2 g D 2.8 g
38The graph shows the distance traveled by a vehicle over a certain period of time. Which segment of the graph shows the vehicle moving with the greatest speed? A L B M C N D O
39The table shows the atomic radii of some elements in Periods 1 through 4 of the periodic table. Which inference can be made from this information? F Atomic radii decrease from left to right. G Atomic radii increase from bottom to top. H Atomic radii decrease from right to left. J Atomic radii double from top to bottom.
40The graph shows the percentage of hemoglobin that combines with carbon monoxide (CO) at various concentrations. Exposure to 400 parts per million of CO in air can cause people to experience nausea and a throbbing headache. According to the graph, about what percentage of hemoglobin is bound to CO at a CO concentration of 400 parts per million? A 25% B 35% C 40% D 55%
41 In which general direction do rivers flow in this watershed? F North G West H Northwest J Southeast
42 The data table shows how the thickness of tree trunks in a certain forest is related to tree age. Use these data to plot points on the graph above. Draw a straight line to show a linear relationship for the data. According to these data, what is the most likely average radius of 4-year-old trees in this forest? A 3.0 cm B 3.3 cm C 3.6 cm D 3.9 cm
43 The graph shows mercury levels found in sediments, prey animals, and adult shorebirds in a bay along the Gulf Coast. Which inference can best be drawn from these data? F Mercury levels are elevated by the presence of shorebirds. G Mercury concentrations are highest in shorebirds. H Mercury is produced by sediments. J Mercury assures the survival of prey animals.
44The chart shows the types of organisms found in 100 mL of pond water. Which graph is the best representation of these data? AC BD Organisms in Pond Water Microorganisms Individuals per 100 mL Paramecium24 Euglena26 Prorodon37 Rotifer13
45There are many different ways that plant epidermal cells can be arranged around the stomata on plant leaves. Which of these has a development pattern most similar to the pattern pictured above? FH GJ
46The graph shows the growth curves of a healthy plant and a plant infected with a fungus. If this trend continues, what will be the mass of the plant infected with the fungus at 12 months? F 10 kg G 11 kg H 12 kg J 13 kg
47The chart shows the average change in mass of some frogs during a period of estivation. If this trend continues, what will be the average mass of the frogs by the twelfth week of estivation? F 424 g G 422 g H 420 g J 418 g Change in Mass of Estivating Frogs Week Average Mass After Estivation (g) ???
48Which conclusion is best supported by these data? F Earth’s surface is composed mostly of silicon and calcium. G Oxygen is closer to Earth’s surface than aluminum. H There is more aluminum than calcium at Earth’s surface. J Silicon is much heavier than iron at Earth’s surface. Most Abundant Elements At Earth’s Surface ElementPercent by Mass Oxygen46.6 Silicon27.7 Aluminum8.13 Iron5.00 Calcium3.63
39Ten different types of culture media were inoculated with the same strain of bacteria and incubated at the same temperature. Nine of the cultures grew. Which of these conclusions can be drawn from this information? F The media used in the experiment are all capable of sustaining bacterial growth. G The temperature varied greatly during the experiment. H Only the culture that failed to grow bacteria was inoculated properly. J One of the media lacked the nutrients needed for the bacteria to grow.
50Which conclusion about the frogs is supported by these data? A Four frogs out of ten preferred the green area. B The frogs randomly moved into the colored areas. C Most frogs tended to avoid the red area. D Most frogs preferred the color blue. Ten frogs were placed in a large container with three sections. Each section had equal amounts of light, shelter, food, and water. Each section was painted a different color: red, green, or blue. Daily observations were made of the frogs’ locations for six weeks. These data were compiled to produce the following frog location frequencies. Red area = 31% Green area = 35% Blue area = 34%
51In an investigation 10,000 dung beetles were examined for the presence of parasites. The data showed that about 5% of the beetles had parasites. The results are — F invalid because only dung beetles were examined G unsupported because the parasite population was small H erroneous because more beetles should have had parasites J valid because the sample size was sufficient for accuracy
52 A student prepared this graph of tornadoes reported over a 50-year period in a midwestern state. Which statement is supported by these data? A Tornadoes are less frequent in the morning. B Darkness increases the strength of tornadoes. C Tornadoes occurring at night are brief. D The probability of a tornado is the same throughout the day.
Mass of beaker = g 53 These data show how the mass of an undisturbed beaker of alcohol varied during a class period. Which of the following is the best conclusion that can be made about the investigation? A The beaker absorbed moisture from the air. B A chemical change occurred in the beaker. C The beaker experienced a change of state. D Some material evaporated from the beaker. Time (min) Mass of Alcohol and Beaker (g)
54According to this chart, there seems to be a relationship between the average number of offspring per species and the species' — A average adult mass B body covering C average number of predatory species D body shading A Few Characteristics of Selected Species Characteristic Species MouseArmadilloBarn swallowChicken Average Number of Offspring Average Adult Mass (kg) Body CoveringHair Plates and hair Feathers Average Number of Predatory Species Body ShadingDark Light
55The apparatus above was used to collect the oxygen that was produced by Elodea. Which factor was most responsible for the production of oxygen by Elodea? F Sugar was present in the liquid. G The liquid contained enough oxygen for the plant to absorb. H The presence of light stimulated photosynthesis. J The plant contained a large number of mitochondria.
56This diagram shows several rock formations exposed at a construction site. The job supervisor claimed that Formation T is the oldest formation. Why is he incorrect? A Formation S, which is sandstone, formed after Formation T, which is granite. B The oldest formations are always in the middle. C Formation T is an intrusion that cut through the other rock formations after they were formed. D An uplift occurred in Formation R, as happens in the oldest formations.
57Certain chemicals in the diet of moth larvae seem to influence the early development of the moths’ wings. Careful observation of developing pupae could result in — A data to verify the hypothesis B changes to the conclusion C a conclusion about the moths’ eggs D development of a new moth species
58As temperature drops to the dew point, clouds form in the atmosphere, and dew forms on ground surfaces. A scientist proposes that adding more water molecules to the atmosphere will change the dew point. This proposal is — F an invalid observation G a valid hypothesis H an invalid problem J a valid conclusion
59In a movie, meteoroids make several microscopic holes in a pressurized cabin in the weightless environment of a spaceship. The astronauts search for the holes by spraying water droplets from a container. If this were an actual situation, what effect should be expected? F The drifting water droplets float to the location of the holes. G After falling to the floor, the water forms a stream leading to the holes. H The water droplets form a large sphere of water that moves away from the holes. J Pumping the trigger on the spray container increases the air pressure in the cabin.
60This statement is a poor hypothesis because it is not — A a question B testable C observable D a comparison Clouds are more beautiful on winter days than on summer days.
61The information above could be used most effectively in arguing against which of these proposals? F Adding chemicals to a local water supply G Permitting a water well to be drilled in a state park H Limiting the use of waterways for recreation J Paving a meadow to create a parking area Conclusion: Food poisoning by botulism is increasing in the United States.
Results of a Scientific Study 62The information above could be used most effectively in arguing against which of these proposals? F Adding chemicals to a local water supply G Permitting a water well to be drilled in a state park H Limiting the use of waterways for recreation J Paving a meadow to create a parking area In natural areas such as forests, about 50% of the rain seeps into the ground and becomes groundwater. In some large cities only about 30% of the rain becomes groundwater.
63Pain medications can be made as powders or tablets. The powders tend to work faster than tablets with the same ingredients because powder — F dissolves faster in solution than a single tablet G has more total mass than a single tablet H travels through the bloodstream more easily than a tablet J is easier to swallow than tablets
64The owner of a pet store assures a customer that if she buys only one female hamster, she will not need to worry about the hamster having offspring, because there will be no male with which the female can breed. What possibility is the pet-store owner overlooking? F The hamster could be infertile. G The sex of the hamster could change. H The hamster could be pregnant. J The hamster could be a twin.
65 According to the information above, which of these is responsible for the decrease in the black-footed ferret population? F Competition with prairie dogs for resources G Reduced numbers of prairie dogs H Activity of research institutes J Development of managed wildlife areas Save Our Species Poster: Black-Footed Ferret This slender animal depends mainly on prairie dogs for food and shelter. The ferret lives in prairie dogs’ underground tunnels and hunts them at night. When prairie dogs became scarce, so did black-footed ferrets. In 1986 the 18 ferrets known to be alive were moved to a Wyoming research institute. The number of ferrets has increased, and recently a few were released into managed wildlife areas.
66 Which statement above makes the most valid argument in favor of receiving the flu vaccine? F Statement 1 G Statement 2 H Statement 3 J Statement 4 PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT: Facts About the Flu Vaccine 1. The vaccine may be administered either as a nasal spray or as an injection. 2. Prior to administration, nasal-spray vaccines must be stored at 15°C or lower. 3. In an experiment, vaccine recipients had 85% fewer flu episodes than nonrecipients. 4. The vaccine virus is heat sensitive and fails to replicate at temperatures of 38°C–39°C.
67 Greenhouse emissions from cars may contribute to global warming. Cars with better gas mileage emit smaller amounts of greenhouse gases. Which car would emit the least amount of greenhouse gases if most of the driving were done on the highway? A J B K C L D M CarModelCityMileage(kilometers per liter) HighwayMileage(kilometers J K L M
68 Which of these is supported by the information above? A Pets should be kept away from public parks. B Smokers should get frequent medical checkups. C Pet immunizations should be kept up to date. D Smoking in enclosed places should be discouraged.
Protein and Fiber Content of Different Flours 69 Protein and dietary fiber are beneficial to health. According to the information in the table, which flour is the most nutritious? F Whole wheat G White wheat H Oat J Rice Type of Flour Protein Content (grams per serving) Dietary Fiber Content (grams per serving) Whole wheat 44 White wheat 3<1 Oat43 Rice31