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BEI — Biological — Engineering — Institute — Clean Biofuels and Energy Independence a presentation by + nancy ouyang + grant robinson for 20.020 (Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "BEI — Biological — Engineering — Institute — Clean Biofuels and Energy Independence a presentation by + nancy ouyang + grant robinson for 20.020 (Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 BEI — Biological — Engineering — Institute — Clean Biofuels and Energy Independence a presentation by + nancy ouyang + grant robinson for (Introduction to Biological Engineering Design) Three Ideas Presentation: Spring 2010

2 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Fossil Fuel Disaster Peak Oil Global Warming Looming Energy Crisis Economic Depression Political Conflicts Dirty & Limited vs. Clean & Independent Stay the Course... Go Green! The Twenty-First Century Challenge

3 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Economic Productivity Carbon Neutrality "Limitless" Energy Energy Independence Catastrophe Aversion Improved Understanding of Biology Benefits of Biological Energy

4 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Synthetic Algae Fuel Microbe Modification Q Pathway Isolation

5 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Synthetic Algae Fuel

6 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Benefits Potential to be an incredible fuel. 30 times the oil content of plants like soybeans. Material for ethanol/butanol production. Grow about 20 to 30 times faster than plants. Produced one of two ways. Open ponds and closed photobioreactors. Open means cheaper and easier to scale up. Closed means more controllable and better for us! Known Importance Biotechnology companies abound. Basic research abounds. DARPA is investing in a radical algae jet fuel idea.

7 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Possibilities One: Contamination Safeguard Transgenic resistance to lowered pH or waste water conditions Two: Photosynthetic Efficiency Genetic reduction of antenna chlorophyll concentration to maximize productivity Three: Algal Recovery Flotation and filaments for speedy recovery Four: Oil Production Modification of algae to produce lipids and hydrocarbons during growth periods

8 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Competition Dozens of biofuel companies. Ethanol: corn and sugar cane. Oil: fossil fuels and digestion. Solar and wind platforms. Unknowns Issues with modification approval. Issues with producing viable mutants. Issues with oil and survival. Issues with structural modification. Issues with pond/reactor upkeep.

9 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns

10 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Already possible... Anaerobic fermentation to produce Biogas Economically feasible even with unmodified bacteria High-efficiency, require complicated processes Acidogenic bacteria that convert ferment and produce H2 Genus Clostridium high efficiency Still relatively low production, not economical Directly produce/excrete fuels (see Q bacteria)

11 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Possibilities Genetically engineer bacteria to produce: Hydrocarbons (Fuel) Hydrogen Methane (Biogas)

12 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Specifically Genetically engineer bacteria Increase rate of production Biogas: Cold-resistant bacteria Produce less CO2 (purer biogas / CH4) More tolerant of different kinds of inputs Reduce water requirement Hydrogen: Increase yields

13 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Unknowns Allow competing bacteria to thrive? Require carefully controlled (i.e. expensive) bioreactors? Competitions Existing infrastructure for biogas Chemical synthesis

14 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns

15 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Background Found in Massachusetts (Quabbin Lake) Capable of Sugar -> Ethanol Digestion Revolutionizing Biomass Fuel

16 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Possibility: Degradation Pathway Isolation Find genetic/enzymati c basis for conversion Design a plasmid for biofuel modification Impact of Pathway Isolation Cellulose breakdown Direct ethanol production Time & cost savings Engineering benefits

17 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Competition No competitors per se Competitors of biofuel Unknowns Which enzymes? Which genes? Patented genes? Issues with expression

18 1. Algae2. Microbes3. Q Bacteria BEI Ideas Importance Knowns Ideas & Impacts Competition & Unknowns Bibliography /sizes/o/ Background image hix/algae.jpg Algae Image les.wordpress.com/2009/04/renewable- energy-in-tourism.jpg Plants /2009/05/peakoil.jpg Peak Oil egorized/2007/05/02/microbes.jpg Micr obe Image Energy-Sphere-Logo.jpg Second Logo s/stories/socialaction/recycle.jpg Recycle Logo Raceway Pond 02/qteros_x220.jpg Q Action q_to_the_rescue/ Q Background og/issues/fall2004/genome2.jpg Genome Image p://blogs.reuters.com/environment/files/2 007/10/algae.jpg Algae Arrays ts/archives/ Staph- Bacteria.jpg Final Image dyn/content/article/2008/01/03/AR html Algae Background 196HB ?pageNumber=2&virtua lBrandChannel=0 Algae Back bin/fulltext/ /PDFSTART Main Algae Article 246-Clipart-Illustration-Of-An-Uncertain- Lime-Green-Man-And-Child-Standing-At- A-Wooden-Post-Trying-To-Decide- Which-Direction-To-Go-At-A- Crossroads.jpg Decide / Microscrope Green io-digester.html Biogas / Cyanobacteria Petri / Microbes Mobile Petri


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