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2  It is a renewable source of energy  Produces energy through hydroelectric power

3  There is minimal pollution  Reduces greenhouse gases  It is renewable and clean  The water used to power the plant is free from nature

4 How it functions

5  The sluice gates measure the flow rate in open channels and regulates the water flow  The penstock is the pipe inside the structure that delivers water to hydraulic turbines  The turbines spin when the water is let through How it functions

6  The generator turns the water’s kinetic energy into energy we can use  The powerhouse lets the dam be self- sustaining  The transformer takes the energy produced and makes it into useable energy for homes and businesses

7  There aren’t many big places left to install hydropower plants.  They can install low head hydropower plants almost anywhere.

8  The pond builds up sediment  It keeps the pond from storing water  The sediment has to be dredged to get rid of this problem,%2 0East%20Coast%20Demerara%20to%20prevent%20water%20entering%20residential%20areas.JPG

9  50-100 years

10  The risk of failure: When the Big Bay Dam in Mississippi broke in 2004, it destroyed over 50 homes.  Dams can destroy wildlife habitats, which means that all the species living there are without homes.  Dams can also drain wetlands and cause river pollution by reducing the river flow to such a low level that the river is not able to self- cleanse any longer.

11  Must have river with place for water to go upstream  Must have room for machinery  Must have resources to build it  If machinery malfunctions the dam is pointless!  Must have way to get electricity to homes  If machine rooms flood an electric SHOCK can occur!!!

12  Average reconstruction cost: $5 million  Reconstruction is a two-phase process  Secondary spillway built (first phase)  Granite blocks fixed because tree roots ruin them

13  The U.S. generates only 7-10% of the electrical supply by hydropower

14  Water Turbidity  Flooding  Fish migration is disturbed  Insect disease abundance  Habitats destroyed  Uncertainty

15  High net energy  High efficiency  No CO2 during operations in temperate areas  Can provide flood control below dam  Provides irrigation water

16  Flooding land  High CO2 emissions from rapid biomass decay in shallow tropical reservoirs  Decreases fish harvest below dam  Decreases flow of natural fertilizer to land below dam D&adlt=strict#focal=5249bbf4bd6015e1b41e92abc0251da5&furl=http

17  Dams are very expensive to build and may not provide sufficiently economical electrical power generation, water supply, or irrigation.

18  It can cause upstream flooding  Lowers levels of water downstream  Countries get into wars or disagreements about this

19  Conventional: one-way water flow  Run-of-River: little, or no, stored water. Weather changes cause fluctuations in power output.  Storage: storage to offset seasonal changes…constant supply of electricity. Large dams enough storage for years.  Pumped Storage: reuse water. After it is used it flows into reservoir, then some pumped back up and reused.

20  ctivities/SecInfo/HydroS.pdf   ml/hydro.html  abstract.asp?create- abstract=/monographs/enviro/generic- dams.asp

21  &form=QBIR&qs=n&sc=8- 5&adlt=strict#focal=afa3056319fee217bd765c4 dff20b141&furl=http%3A%2F%2Fpasc.met.psu.e du%2FPA_Climatologist%2Fextreme%2FFloods% 2Fflood%2520house%2520pic.jpg  4/winter2001/dbiggs/three.html  /Engineering-Careers/Problems-and-Benfits-of- Building-a-Dam.html  4/winter2001/dbiggs/enviro.html

22     dro/index.html  development/kbase/contrib/soc195.pdf  6512/State-in-process-of-rebuilding-Mystic-Lakes-dam  spx?P=G1548

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