Presentation on theme: "UW LID Workshop Bioretention Flow Control Modeling May 2008"— Presentation transcript:
1UW LID Workshop Bioretention Flow Control Modeling May 2008 Doug Beyerlein, P.E.Clear Creek Solutions, Inc.
2Clear Creek Solutions’ Stormwater LID Expertise Clear Creek Solutions, Inc., provides complete range of hydrologic and stormwater modeling services.Clear Creek specializes in continuous simulation hydrologic modeling.We have 30+ years of experience modeling complex hydrologic and stormwater problems.We created the Western Washington Hydrology Model Version 3 (WWHM3) for Washington State Department of Ecology.We teach WWHM and HSPF workshops.
3Presentation Introduction WWHM: Western Washington Hydrology Model Bioretention Implicit ModelingBioretention Explicit ModelingSeattle Bioretention Swale ModelingModeling ResultsSummaryQuestions & Answers
6Bioretention Reduces Runoff Volume: Infiltration to native soil.Evaporation and transpiration.
7Flow Control Modeling Continuous simulation: WWHM (HSPF) Continuous simulation hydrology models the entire hydrologic cycle for multiple years.
8Western Washington Hydrology Model (WWHM) Developed for the State of Washington Department of Ecology.Project Manager: Dr. Foroozan LabibDepartment of EcologyPO Box 47600Olympia, WA(360)
9Western Washington Hydrology Model (WWHM) Developed for the 19 counties of western Washington.Part ofEcology’sStormwaterManagementManual
10WWHM3Available free from the Washington State Department of Ecology web site:
11WWHM3WWHM helps the user design facilities to meet the Washington State Department of Ecology’s flow control standards.
12Ecology’s flow duration standard: based on erosive flows. WWHM3Ecology’s flow duration standard: based on erosive flows.Erosive flow range: ½ of the 2-year to the 50-year
13Disclaimer:Bioretention by itself will not meet Ecology’s flow control standards…but bioretention will reduce the size of a flow control facility (stormwater pond, vault, etc.).
14Bioretention Flow Paths Inflow to Bioretention FacilityWeir FlowInfiltration to Amended SoilVertical Orifice FlowUnderdrain FlowInfiltration to Native Soil
15Bioretention Flow Paths Weir, vertical orifice, and underdrain flow all are subject to Ecology’s flow control standard (1/2 of 2-yr to 50-yr).Weir FlowVertical Orifice FlowUnderdrain Flow
16Bioretention Flow Paths Infiltration to native soil is dependent on native soil characteristics.Infiltration to Native Soil
17WWHM: Bioretention Modeling Options Bioretention can be modeled implicitly or explicitly:PSAT (Puget Sound Action Team) recommends how to implicitly represent bioretention in WWHM2WWHM3 explicitly represents bioretention
18WWHM: Bioretention Modeling Options Implicit modeling:Represent bioretention as a pond filled with dirt.Reduce pond volume to volume of available void space.Disadvantage:Assumes pond fills from the bottom up to the surface.
19WWHM: Bioretention Modeling Options Explicit modeling (current):Check infiltration rate into amended soil vs. soil moisture volume available (surface ponding).Invert the stage-volume relationship so that the soil column fills from the top down.Disadvantage:Simplifies the movement of water through the soil column.
20WWHM: Bioretention Modeling Options Explicit modeling (future):dynamic hydraulic conductivity based on soil saturation levelsconductivity computed based on the Van Genuchten equationsdischarge from a given soil layer is then computed based on conductivity, stage, and surface area
21WWHM Bioretention Modeling Options cont’d: Explicit modeling (future):Soil parameters based on Rosetta parameters (Table 1).
22WWHM Rosetta parameters* (Table 1). Soil NameSrSsKsnCourse sand0.0520.3953.1620.501Fine sand0.3642.5520.404Sandy loam0.0300.3801.4450.317Loam0.0610.3991.4790.197Silty clay loam0.077.04751.513.0184Clay loam0.0870.4451.4120.133Peat***0.0990.8633.0500.229Gravel loamy sand0.10.453.59.37Gravel**0.020.421018.4*Values taken from Schaap and Leij (1998).**Values based on Hazen and Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC).***Estimation of Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Peat Soils, Schwarzela, et al.
23WWHM Bioretention Modeling Options cont’d: Explicit modeling (future):The level of saturation of that soil layer is proportionate to the fraction of soil volume within a given stage:Se = Sr + [1- (H / Hm) *(Ss-Sr)]Where:Se = SaturationSr = Residual SaturationH = Stage (within layer)Hm = Height of the layerSs = Max saturation
24WWHM Bioretention Modeling Options cont’d: Explicit modeling (future):Hydraulic conductivity K as a function of the saturation level within the soil layer is determined by the Van Genuchten equation:K = Ks *Se^(1/2) * [1-(1-Se^(1/M))^M]^2Where:Ks = Saturated Hydraulic ConductivitySe = SaturationM = 1-(1/n)n = Van Genuchten fitting parameter
25WWHM Bioretention Modeling Options cont’d: Explicit modeling (future):Flow through the porous layers is determined using Darcy’s equation:Q = As * K * SWhere:Q = Flow (inches/hour)As = Surface AreaK = Hydraulic ConductivityS = Stage
37SPU Bioretention Modeling Results Figure 3. Rain Garden with Live Storage Depth of 5 Inches
38SPU Bioretention Modeling Results Figure 4. Rain Garden with Live Storage Depth of 10 Inches
39Bioretention Modeling Results For example:For an impervious area of 5000 sq ft a bioretention area of 195 sq ft with 10” of surface ponding is needed (assuming a native soil infiltration rate of 0.25 inches/hour).
40Bioretention Modeling Results Summary:Bioretention works best for flow control when there is sufficient native soil infiltration.Underdrain flows must still be mitigated to flow control standards.Bioretention can reduce stormwater runoff volume, but additional mitigation will still be required to meet Ecology’s flow control standards.
41Acknowledgements Seattle Public Utilities (Tracy Tackett) and Washington State University (Curtis Hinman) provided the funding for the WWHM3 bioretention modeling.
42For more information on WWHM3 bioretention modeling go to: www For more information on WWHM3 bioretention modeling go to: