Objectives Define AquacultureDefine Aquaculture Identify how Aquaculture is important to our societyIdentify how Aquaculture is important to our society Identify the components of AquacultureIdentify the components of Aquaculture
Definition “Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.” “Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Farming implies some form of intervention in the rearing process to enhance production, such as regular stocking, feeding, protection from predators, etc. Farming also implies individual or corporate ownership of the stock being cultivated.” SOURCE: FAO FISHERIES CIRCULAR NO. 815 REVISION 8, 1996
In Other Words The controlled raising of aquatic plants and animals in a confined environment.
How Long Has Aquaculture Been Around? First Developed in AsiaFirst Developed in Asia –3500 BC Chinese raised carp in ponds –Developed breeding techniques for increased production
Why has the demand for fish in the US increased?
Per Capita Consumption 14.9 lbs./capita 1998
Why is Aquaculture considered the fastest growing industry in the agriculture sector?
SOURCE: USDC/NOAA/NMFS CURRENT FISHERIES STATISTICS 9600, JULY 1997 World Production
Why Aquaculture Looks Good to Farmers Increased Seafood ConsumptionIncreased Seafood Consumption –14.9 lbs per person in 1998 Good quality of protein low in fatGood quality of protein low in fat Better Production to Cost RatioBetter Production to Cost Ratio –1 1/2 lbs of feed to 1 lb of fish
Agriculture vs. Aquaculture Variable body temperatureVariable body temperature Better converters of foodstuffsBetter converters of foodstuffs Requires less energy for body supportRequires less energy for body support 1 lb feed = 1 lb fish Compared to 1 2
1995 Farm Bill Proposal “Aquaculture is poised to become a major growth industry.”
U.S. Aquaculture 1998 Food Fish Production increasedFood Fish Production increased –308 million pounds in 1992 –768 million pounds in 1998
U.S. Aquaculture 1998 Total Value: $5.6 BillionTotal Value: $5.6 Billion 181,000 Full-time Jobs181,000 Full-time Jobs Fastest Growing Sector Of U.S. AgricultureFastest Growing Sector Of U.S. Agriculture
Value by Category
Top States Source: 1998 Census of Aquaculture, USDA-NASS
Production States NORTH CENTRAL NORTHEASTERN SOUTHERN WESTERN TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL Perch Striped Bass Tilapia Catfish Striped Bass Tilapia TroutSalmonShellfish Striped Bass Tilapia Ornamentals, Food and Shellfish Salmon Shellfish Striped Bass
Species Selection Producer’s expertiseProducer’s expertise MarketabilityMarketability ClimateClimate Production economicsProduction economics Species biologySpecies biology Production methodsProduction methods ?
Types of Aquaculture Food FishFood Fish BaitfishBaitfish Sport FishSport Fish Fee FishingFee Fishing
Water Temperature Warmwater RangeWarmwater Range –75º – 90º F Example: TilapiaExample: Tilapia
Water Temperature Coolwater RangeCoolwater Range –60 o – 80 o F Example: BassExample: Bass
Water Temperature Coldwater RangeColdwater Range –48 o – 65 o F Example: TroutExample: Trout
Food Fish Species CatfishCatfish TilapiaTilapia Rainbow troutRainbow trout Atlantic SalmonAtlantic Salmon ShrimpShrimp ShellfishShellfish Striped BassStriped Bass OthersOthers
Baitfish Species Fathead minnowsFathead minnows Golden shinersGolden shiners GoldfishGoldfish CrawfishCrawfish White suckersWhite suckers
Long-term leasesLong-term leases Day leases or “ticket lakes”Day leases or “ticket lakes” “Fish-out” or by the pound ponds“Fish-out” or by the pound ponds
What are the types of Production Methods used in Aquaculture?
Production Methods PondsPonds Cages and pensCages and pens RacewaysRaceways Closed re-use systemsClosed re-use systems Source: 1998 Census of Aquaculture, USDA-NASS
Ponds SpawningSpawning –Broodstock –Hatching of eggs FingerlingFingerling Grow-out to market sizeGrow-out to market size Spawning 0.1 acre Fingerling 1 acre Food size 20 acre
Carrying Capacity Maximum weight that an area can support expressed either as lbs/acre or lbs/gal/minMaximum weight that an area can support expressed either as lbs/acre or lbs/gal/min Feed and aeration 2, lbs/acre Feed2,0000lbs/acre 300 lbs/acre
Cages and Pens 4 feet
Cage Culture Allows deep farm ponds or lakes to be used for productionAllows deep farm ponds or lakes to be used for production Low investmentLow investment Decrease in productionDecrease in production rate rate
Raceways YieldYield –15-20,000 lbs for every 500 gallon/min flow. Earthen Raceway Concrete Raceway
Water Re-use Systems H2OH2OH2OH2O Fish Solidsfilter Bio.filter Pump
Re-circulating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) Layout
RAS Tank Aeration Biological Filters Solids Filter
How can fish be marketed?
Market Techniques Direct MarketingDirect Marketing WholesaleWholesale –Whole fish –Headed and gutted –Fillets –Steaks Value addedValue added
Conclusion Aquaculture is a fast growing industry with many possibilities for production and marketing.Aquaculture is a fast growing industry with many possibilities for production and marketing.