Presentation on theme: "Unit title: Ventilation and Cooling; Water and Waste Presentation title:Can human sewage provide the feedstock for biodiesel production by photoautotrophic."— Presentation transcript:
Unit title: Ventilation and Cooling; Water and Waste Presentation title:Can human sewage provide the feedstock for biodiesel production by photoautotrophic microalgae? Unit number: A3 Unit date: November12 th 2008 Presentation date:January 11 th 2008 Student name: Craig Embleton Student number: 0750553 Seminar group: 1 (Melissa Taylor) e-mail:email@example.com website:firstname.lastname@example.org
CAN HUMAN SEWAGE PROVIDE THE FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC MICROALGAE?
Contents Problems with current situation Sewage pollution Conventional biofuels Sewage treatment Waste stabilisation ponds Aquatic Species Programme Algae production Raceway ponds Oil yield comparison Conclusions Questions
What are the problems? The usual suspects: Climate change caused by burning fossil fuels Peak oil Plus Sewage pollution wrecks aquatic ecosystems and human health Conventional biofuel production wrecks terrestrial ecosystems and competes with food production
Marine pollution ‘Discharge of untreated domestic wastes is a major source of marine pollution, and perhaps the most serious problem within the framework of the Global Programme of Action’. Source: United Nations Environment Programme report into the state of the marine environment, 2006
1.5 million deaths/year from diarrhoeal diseases attributable to poor sanitation and hygiene Source: United Nations Environment Programme, 2006, WHO, 2006.’ Children playing near sewage outlets
The Trouble with Conventional Biofuel Indonesia currently has: 60,000 square kms of oil palm plantations Plans for another 40,000 by 2015 dedicated to biofuel production alone. Size of Wales: 21,588 square kilometres Rainforest destroyed. Huge amounts of fertilizers used. No reduction in greenhouse gases. Food prices up.
Is there a solution? Perhaps - Photoautotrophic Microalgae Source: Shell, 2008
What nutrients do algal require to grow? Source: Mara, D 2004 The table below shows that most of the nutrients produced by a human are in the urine and that in healthy people urine is sterile. Algal Photosynthesis 106CO 2 + 236H 2 O + 16NH 4 + + HPO 4 2- C 106 H 181 O 45 N 16 P + 118O 2 + 171H 2 O + 14H + Major Nutrients: Nitrogen and Phosphorus
What nutrients are in human waste? (Per person per day) Source: Harper, P. and Halestrap, L. 1999 The table below shows that most of the nutrients produced by a human are in the urine and that in healthy people urine is sterile. Per adult per day FaecesUrine Nitrogen3g8g Phosphorus2g Potassium1g2g Calcium2g
Sewage treatment: algal-bacterial mutualism in waste stabilisation ponds Source: Mara, 2004 BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Source: Sheehan, J et al 1998 U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fuels Development funded the ASP that ran from 1978-1996 Focussed on production of biodiesel from algae grown in ponds, using waste CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The early studies used sewage ponds. Later studies used fresh and marine water ponds with the addition of agricultural fertilizers. Aquatic Species Programme (ASP)
Source: Sheehan, J et al 1998 Programme concluded: Many R&D obstacles but in theory 2,000 square kilometres of climatically suitable land areas in the U.S. could produce one quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000) British Thermal Units (BTU) of fuel. Programme stopped for economic reasons. CHEAP OIL! Aquatic Species Programme (ASP)
Oil yields of crops CropOil yield (L/ha) Maize172 Soybean446 Oil seed rape1190 Jatropha1892 Oil palm5950 Microalgae grown in raceway ponds. 17,000 Source: Chisti, Y 2007 and J. Benemann, J 2008
Source: Chisti, Y 2007 Most algae commercially produced in raceway ponds (Arial View)
Most algae commercially produced in raceway ponds as premium food Because commercially produced algae is usually a premium foodstuff e.g. spirulina Wastewater (sewage) is avoided. Expensive agricultural fertilizers used. Carbonated drinks quality carbon dioxide added.
Algae harvested from waste stabilisation ponds Because algal product is a non-food crop: Wastewater (sewage) can be used. Expensive agricultural fertilizers avoided. No addition of CO 2 needed but could use flue gases from fossil fuel power stations.
Source: Aquaflow 2008 Fuel from sewage pond algae Proof of concept by Aquaflow Powered a vehicle with a 5% biofuel mix
CAN HUMAN SEWAGE PROVIDE THE FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC MICROALGAE? Conclusions Yes – but not yet economically. Much more research needed and tax breaks.
Source: Spolaore, P et al, 2005 Issues - Does algal-biodiesel really not compete with food production? CommodityProteinCarbohydrateLipid Meat43134 Milk263828 Rice8772 Spirulina maxima 60–7113–166–7 General composition of different human food sources and algae (% of dry matter)
Issues - Will algal biodiesel perpetuate our oil addiction? What about electric cars? What about transitioning to a low carbon economy? How about using algae to capture carbon and incorporate in soil or bury?
Aquaflow bionomic corporation limited. (2008). Prospectus and investment statement for aquaflow bionomic corporation limited. Available: http://www.aquaflowgroup.com/documents/ProspectusandI nvestmentStatement_001.pdf. Last accessed 31 December 2008. Benemann, J. (2008). Open ponds and closed photobioreactors – comparative economics. Available: http://www.bio.org/ind/wc/08/breakout_pdfs/20080430/Trac k1_ContinentalA/Session9_230p400pm/Benemann_Contin ental_A_Wed.pdf. Last accessed 1 January 2009. Broere, W. (2008). Harvesting energy from algae. Available: http://www- static.shell.com/static/aboutshell/downloads/swol/jan_mar_ 2008/algae/algae_en.pdf. Last accessed 30 December 2008. Bibliography
Catherine Brahic. (2008). Europe unveils ambitious energy plan. Available: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn13218-europe- unveils-ambitious-energy-plan.html. Last accessed 27 December 2008. Coordination Office of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (gpa) of the United Nations Environment Programme. (2006). The State of the Marine Environment. Available: http://www.gpa.unep.org/documents/soe_- _trends_and_english.pdf. Last accessed 26 December 2008 Bibliography Continued
Harper, P. and Halestrap, L. (1999) Lifting the Lid. Powys, CAT. Mara, D (2004). Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. London: Earthscan. 3. Available (preview) http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=d9O9Gw_3rOUC&pri ntsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Last accessed 27 December 2008. Pearce, F. and Aldhous, P.. (2007). Is the biofuel dream over?. Available: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19626343.800. Last accessed 23 December 2008. Bibliography Continued
Sheehan, J., T. Dunahay, J. Benemann, and P. Roessler (1998). A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program-Biodiesel from Algae. U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fuels Development. Prepared by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado. Available: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/pdfs/biodiesel_from_ algae.pdf. Last accessed 20 November 2008 Spolaore, P., Joannis-Cassan, C., Duran, E., and Isambert, A. (2006). Commercial applications of microalgae. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 101(2):87-96. World Health Organisation. (2006). Analysis of estimates of the environmental attributable fraction, by disease. Available: http://www.who.int/entity/quantifying_ehimpacts/publication s/preventingdisease5.pdf. Last accessed 27 December 2008. Bibliography Continued