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RESCOPAR What is it about? Rebuilding resilience of coastal populations and aquatic resources Paul van Zwieten.

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Presentation on theme: "RESCOPAR What is it about? Rebuilding resilience of coastal populations and aquatic resources Paul van Zwieten."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESCOPAR What is it about? Rebuilding resilience of coastal populations and aquatic resources Paul van Zwieten

2 Highly productive Heavily populated Highly subject to changes Many users = Competing Claims Coastal areas: characterisation

3 …are drastic and at astonishing speed Unclear if Reversible or irreversible Desired, unavoidable, regrettable Related to changes in Economic activity Lifestyle Livelihoods Changes occur without concurrent adjustment of regulatory frameworks (care of potential risks) Coastal areas SE Asia: changes …

4 Impacts on states of nature, natural resources Impacts on socio-ecological systems Resilience decreases Vulnerability increases (example: Tsunami effects) Coastal areas: changes leading to…

5 Mahakam Delta Mekong Delta Example: fish based livelihoods in mangrove forested areas

6 Mahakam Delta change since 1980: regime shift? ~70% mangrove converted Source: Bourgeois et al, 2002 - TotalFinaElf

7 Shift caused by economic drivers/opportunities Oil/gas exploration Trawl ban Investments Monetary crisis Indonesia But also Migration of poor Bugis: risk takers … Mangroves as empty space... Weak government institutions No intensification because of diseases …..

8 Shift form fishery to aquaculture, but … Impacts on... feedback from … Nature Livelihoods Global trade Increased income from aquatic resources, and …

9 Impacts … feedback … from nature Shifts towards more resilient species with high turnover rates 4 -10 years after boom in pond development Decrease wild shrimp productivity in ponds over time Increase in viral disease incidence Cyclic process of: clearance, farming, abandoning

10 Livelihoods: social, economic resilience? After rapid exploitation phase now time to worry about the future (conservation phase?) Window of opportunity to adapt to changes and invest in the future? Fishermen Mangrove destruction  reduced biodiversity Reduced biodiversity  shifts fishery Shrimp farmers: increased land conflicts, erosion, decreased pond productivity, reduced biodiversity

11 Global trade and information flows? Drivers of change Globalized economy (Western demand shrimp) Decisions of farmers based on information flows from global scales 60% shrimp exports East Kalimantan (Europe, Japan) comes from Mahakam Delta Upward mobility shrimp-farmers Risks Auditing systems for quality certificates

12 Similarities Fast increase in pond area Ecological impacts? Small scale ponds, large scale in total area Global markets Differences More regulated conversion More sophisticated systems Higher production/ha (~2x) More diseases Kalimantan Ca Mau Similarities – differences shrimp culture Ca Mau

13 Policy objectives ~ RESCOPAR Can we increase resilience coastal populations ? Fish based livelihoods What do we need to do? Scenario development: sustainability directions, protection mangroves How do we need this to do? Multidisciplinary analysis of interactions between Global shrimp trade  regulatory framework Local livelihood decisions  potential to adapt to changes and feedbacks Mariculture practices  innovative shrimp health management Coastal ecosystem  innovative shrimp pond-mangrove forest management

14 RESCOPAR research questions What processes affect the resilience of coastal areas ecological and social mangrove forested ecosystems? How do decision-making processes at different socio-political and spatial scales affect the use, management and conservation of living aquatic resources?

15 RESCOPAR - considerations Change is not linear Conservation and management efforts in a continuing changing environment affected by Global trade Local decisions – development pathways Change from frontier mentality to a mentality of “care about the future”

16 Four research themes 4. Governance 3. Livelihoods 2. Shrimp health & life support system 1. Coastal ecosystems Spatial arrangements and temporal changes of human activities (fisheries, aquaculture) in coastal ecosystems Governance arrangements facilitating change in aquatic natural resource use Trade-offs and feedbacks in resource use patterns, institutions and livelihoods Spatial interactions and resilience of shrimp pond- mangrove forest ecosystems

17 Research themes: summary Analysing and visualising impacts on the coastal aquatic ecosystem Observing, experimenting and modelling on mariculture systems Analysing resource use patterns, institutions and livelihoods Analysing interventions at policy level and governance arrangements

18 Nine PhD projects Aquatic ecosystem AFI-GRS-CTU Trade-offs in coastal fisheries production, mangrove structure and extent and shrimp- culture in Ca Mau province:a spatial modeling approach Vietnam RES- A&F- WWF Marine protected areas, shrimp farms and coastal fisheries in the Berau Delta, East Kalimantan: linkages through cascading effects. Indonesia Mariculture systems QVE-AFI-VIR-CTU Spatial spread and virulence development of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp, Ca Mau Vietnam QVE-AFI-VIR-CTU Disease transmission of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp, ca Mau Vietnam AFI-AEW-UNMUL Mechanistic analysis and (possible) optimisation of management measures on pond level and adjacent mangrove forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia Livelihoods LAW-RDS-CTU Decision-making and change in coastal fish-based livelihoods in Ca Mau Vietnam AFI-RDS-LAW-UNMUL Decision-making and livelihoods in East Kalimantan Indonesia Governance arrangements ENP-LAW-CTU Global and local governance in CZM in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam RDS-ENP-UNMUL-IBPCoastal governance between decentralisation and trans-national forces in Eastern Kalimantan, Indonesia

19 Two research areas: East Kalimantan: site(s) in Mahakam and Berau? Mekong Delta: site(s) in Ca Mau? Differences/similarities in characteristics to be described for each of the four themes Rationale: Vietnamese case alternative for Kalimantan ? Learning moment from comparison ? Comparative

20 concept development through workshops common framework development by common courses Final Result/Deliverable: RESCOPAR book Interdisciplinarity

21 RESCOPAR Research challenges Rebuilding resilience of coastal populations and aquatic resources Paul van Zwieten

22 1: Spatial management in coastal zone Spatial assessment of mangrove-coastal productivity-fisheries links Relation spatial patterns of mangroves to coastal shrimp production Use of fishery information to assess change in coastal productivity

23 Variables Resulting effort allocation Engine capacity, cost of fishing Species categories Weather, bathymetry Fishing as an ecological process

24 Spatial insight in exploitation & impacts of coastal change Variables: space-time scales, availability Effort and catch distribution Assessment of exploitation patterns – impacts coastal change

25 2: Health and resilience of shrimp life-support system Variables in management of shrimp farming to optimize the balance with the coastal ecosystem Factors driving shrimp health and production in the coastal environment Strategic decisions to manage shrimp ponds/industry to prevent outbreaks of WSSV disease 1993 1991/92 1993 1994 1999 P.J. Walker, Australia

26 3: Trade-offs and feedbacks in resource use patterns, institutions and livelihoods Factors influencing decision-making in local fishery based livelihoods Decisive environmental feedbacks in decisions to change livelihoods Significance of aggregated decisions for pond management & the allocation of fishing effort

27 4: Global food governance & environmental management Influences global processes on local management Linking social and ecological factors within market-based governance in transitional economies Spatial analysis - presentation processes/ flows between scales Potential for auditing systems to assess social- ecological resilience Local Global National Information Commodities Provincial District Commune Household Individual Regional

28 Research challenge RESCOPAR program Sharing and exchange of knowledge Provision information for decision makers to understand trade-offs in resource use Facilitation of participatory and transparent decisions making Elucidation of position of stakeholders with regard to management tools and interventions

29 End …. beginnning … © Wageningen UR

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