3FreshwaterFreshwater is defined as having a low salt concentration—usually less than 1%Plants and animals in freshwater regions are adjusted to the low salt content and would not be able to survive in areas of high salt concentration (i.e, ocean)
4Ponds and Lakesrange in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometersponds may be seasonal, lasting just a couple of months (such as sessile pools)lakes may exist for hundreds of years or moremay have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans
5Ponds and Lakesdivided into three different “zones” determined by depth and distance from the shorelinelittoral zonelimnetic zoneprofundal zone
7Littoral Zonewarmest since it is shallow and can absorb more of the Sun’s heatsustains a fairly diverse community, which can include several species of algae (like diatoms), rooted and floating aquatic plants, grazing snails, clams, insects, crustaceans, fishes, and amphibiansthe egg and larvae stages of some insects are found in this zonevegetation and animals living in the littoral zone are food for other creatures such as turtles, snakes, and ducks
8Limnetic Zone near-surface open water surrounded by the littoral zone well-lighted (like the littoral zone) and is dominated by plankton, both phytoplankton and zooplanktonplankton are small organisms that play a crucial role in the food chain – most life would not be possible without themvariety of freshwater fish also occupy this zone
9Profundal ZonePlankton have short life spans—when they die, they fall into the deep-water part of the lake/pondmuch colder and denser than the other twolittle light penetrates all the way through the limnetic zone into the profundal zoneanimals are decomposers
10Ponds and Lakes Temperature varies seasonally. Summer Winter from 4° C near the bottom to 22° C at the topWinterfrom 4° C while the top is 0° C (ice)between the two layers is a narrow zone called the thermocline where the temperature of the water changes rapidly with depth
11Ponds and Lakesduring the spring and fall seasons is a mixing of the top and bottom layers resulting in a uniform water temperature of around 4° Cmixing also circulates oxygen throughout the lakemany lakes and ponds do not freeze during the winter resulting in the top layer being a little warmer
12Ponds and Lakes ice can develop on the top of lakes during winter blocks out sunlight and can prevent photosynthesisoxygen levels drop and some plants and animals may diecalled "winterkill."
14Streams & Rivers bodies of flowing water moving in one direction found everywhere—they get their start at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakestravel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean
15Watersheddescribes an area of land that contains a common set of streams and riversdrains into a single larger body of water, such as a larger river, a lake or an ocean
16Streams & Riverscharacteristics change during the journey from the source to the mouthtemperature is cooler at the source than it is at the mouthwater is also clearer, has higher oxygen levels, and freshwater fish such as trout and heterotrophs can be found there
17Streams & RiversTowards the middle part of the stream/river, the width increases, as does species diversity—numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found
18Streams & Riverstoward the mouth the water becomes murky from all the sediments that it has picked up upstreamdecreasing the amount of light that can penetrate through the waterless lightless diversity of floralower oxygen levelsfish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found
20WetlandsWetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plantsMarshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands
21WetlandsPlantsadapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytesPond lilies Cattails SedgesTamarack Black SpruceGum Cypress
22Wetlands highest species diversity of all ecosystems many species of amphibians, reptiles, birds (such as ducks and waders), and furbearers can be found in the wetlandsnot considered freshwater ecosystems as there are some, such as salt marshes, that have high salt concentrations—these support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses
23Wetlands River Otter Damselfly Dragonfly Mayfly Crayfish Snails Leech Bluegill BassCatfish Sculpin Minnow SnakesFrog TurtleGreat Blue Heron Canadian GooseWetlands
25Marinecover about three-fourths of the Earth’s surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuariesalgae supply much of the world’s oxygen supply and take in a huge amount of atmospheric carbon dioxideevaporation of the seawater provides rainwater for the land
26Oceans largest of all the ecosystems dominate the Earth’s surface separate zonesIntertidalPelagicAbyssalBenthicgreat diversity of speciesrichest diversity of species even though it contains fewer species than there are on land
28Intertidal Zone where the ocean meets the land sometimes submerged and at other times exposedwaves and tides come in and outcommunities are constantly changing
29Intertidal Zone rocky coasts stratified vertically Where only highest tides reacha few species of algae and molluskssubmerged during high tidemore diverse array of algae and small animals, such as herbivorous snails, crabs, sea stars, and small fishesbottom of the intertidal zoneonly exposed during the lowest tides, many invertebrates, fishes, and seaweed can be found
30Intertidal Zone sandier shores not as stratified waves keep mud and sand constantly movingvery few algae and plants can establish themselves—the fauna include worms, clams, predatory crustaceans, crabs, and shorebirds.
33Wave Regions much stronger than wind decide what grows where shores classified by amount of wave actionExposed shores – receive full brunt of the ocean for most or at least some of the timeSemi-exposed shores – sheltered by barrier islands but still have to cope with wavesSheltered shores – shelter of peninsulas and inshore islandsEnclosed shoresriver mouths and estuariescompletely sheltered by either a protective rocks or a sand bar
34Pelagic – Open Oceanwaters further from the land, basically the open oceangenerally cold though it is hard to give a general temperature range since, just like ponds and lakes, there is thermal stratification with a constant mixing of warm and cold ocean currents
36Epipelagic – Open Ocean extends down to around 200mlowest depth that light can penetrateflora in the epipelagic zone include surface seaweedsfauna include many species of fish and some mammals, such as whales and dolphinsmany feed on the abundant plankton
38Mesopelagic Zone "twilight zone" of the ocean "twilight zone" of the oceanphotic zone abovedarkness belowfood becomes scarce – some animalsmigrate up to the surface at night to feedrely on food that falls down from aboveeat each othersometimes the only things to eat may be bigger than the hunterdeveloped long sharp teeth,expandable jaws and stomachs
39ctenophore – related to jellyfish Big Scale - ambush predator cilia can be illuminatedFirefly squidthree kinds of photophoresHatchet Fishonly a few inches longViperfishspecially adapted hinged skullDragonfish - stomachs hold big mealsSnipeelup to 1.2m Siphonophores are colonies of animalsrelated to jellyfishbest known is Portugese Man of War
40Bathypelagic Zone extends down from 1000 to 4000m only light is from bioluminescent organismsonly food is what trickles down from above, or from eating other animalswater pressure at this depth is considerable (~100 – 400 atmospheres)most animals are either black or red in colorvery little blue/green light penetrates this deep – red is not reflected and looks black
41NarcomedusaVampire SquidSnake DragonAngler FishAmphi - crustaceanCtenophore – voracious predatorDeepstaria very slow swimmers, no tentacles, close flexible bells (up to a meter across) around their preyBig Redgrows to overa meter across
42Abyssopelagic Zone - the Abyss 4000m to the sea flooronly zone deeper than this is the hadal zoneareas found in deep sea trenches and canyonshome to pretty inhospitable living conditionsnear- freezing temperaturescrushing pressures
45Ballina AngelfishBeaked SalmonA deepsea anglerfish (no common name)Duckbilled EelA fanfin anglerfishFangtoothGilbert's HalosaurGulper EelHammerjawLargescale New LaternfishLongray SpiderfishPortuguese DogfishSharpnose Sevengill SharkShort-tail Torpedo RaySilver Lighthouse FishA snaggletooth (no common name)Snubnosed EelSouthern SpinebackSparkling SlickheadSpiky OreoStoplight LoosejawTriplewart SeadevilViperfish
46A Look at a Marine Biome Created by Terri Street The Coral Reef BiomeA Look at a Marine BiomeCreated byTerri Street
47What Is a Coral Reef?A structure formed by coral polyps, tiny animals that live in colonies.Coral polyps form a hard, stony, branching structure made of limestone.New polyps attach to old coral and gradually build the reef.
48Types of Coral Reefs Fringing reefs Barrier reefs Submerged platforms of living coral extending from the shore into the seaBarrier reefsFollow the shore but are separated from it by waterGreat Barrier Reef is world’s largest
49Types of Coral Reefs Atolls Ring-shaped islands of coral in open sea Form on submerged mud banks or volcano cratersSurround a seawater lagoonChannels connect lagoon to the sea
52Coral Reef Climate Usually found near land in shallow, warm salt water Lots of lightTropical temperatures, averaging 70°-85° FMost coral cannot survive below 65° F
53Coral Reef Plants Phytoplankton Microscopic Basis for all ocean food chains
54Coral Reef Plants Algae Green Red Brown algae takes many forms Green and red algae contain limestone and when they die, they disintegrate into sand.Brown algae has many different forms and looks more like seaweed.
55Coral Reef Plants Seaweed and Sea grasses Brown seaweed Sea grass Shoal grassTurtle grass
56Fascinating Fact: The Great Barrier Reef World’s largest coral reefOver 1257 miles longOff the northeast coast of AustraliaOnly grows about one inch per year
57The Great Barrier Reef: Home to… 1500 species of fish400 different types of coral4,000 mollusks500 species of seaweed215 species of birds16 species of sea snake6 species of sea turtleWhales visit during winter
59Coral Reef Creatures Symbiotic relationships Coral with algae Clown fish with sea anemones
60Coral Reef Creatures Tropical fish Sea horse Angel fish John Dory Butterfly fishSea horseOctopusReef shark
61Fascinating Fact: The Sea Horse Very weak swimmersFemale lays eggs, male carries them in pouch till birthOnly animal in which the father gives birthBody covered with armored plates
62Sample Food Chain Starfish Coral Octopus Zooplankton Moray Eel Phytoplankton
63Endangered Coral Reefs Major threats to coral reefs include:Ocean pollutionDredging off the coast
64Endangered Coral Reefs Other dangers:Careless collection of coral specimensSedimentationInhibits growth of coral polypsInhibits algae growthUpsets balance of the biome
65Estuariesenclosed body of water formed where freshwater from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty sea waterestuaries and the lands surrounding them are places of transition from land to sea, and from fresh to salt wateralthough influenced by the tides, estuaries are protected from the full force of ocean waves, winds, and storms by the reefs, barrier islands, or fingers of land, mud, or sand that define an estuary's seaward boundary
66Estuaries are semi-enclosed bodies of water where fresh water from the land mixes with sea water. Estuaries originate as: drowned river valleys, fjords, bar-built estuaries, and tectonic estuaries.Salinity typically grades from normal marine salinity at the tidal inlet to fresh water at the mouth of the river.
67Estuaries can be subdivided into three types based upon the relative importance of river inflow and tidal mixing.Salt-wedge estuaries are dominated by the outflow from rivers.Partially-mixed estuaries are dominated by neither river inflow nor tidal mixing.In well-mixed estuaries tidal turbulence destroys the halocline and water stratification.Because river discharge and tidal flow vary, conditions within an estuary can also change, being well-mixed when river flow decreases relative to tidal mixing, to becoming a salt-wedge estuary at times of maximum river discharge.
68The widely fluctuating environmental conditions in estuaries make life stressful for organisms. Estuaries are extremely fertile because nutrients are brought in by rivers and recycled from the bottom because of the turbulence.Stressful conditions and abundant nutrients result in low species diversity, but great abundance of the species present.Despite abundance of nutrients, phytoplankton blooms are irregular and the base of the food chain is detritus washed in from adjacent salt marshes.The benthonic fauna strongly reflects the nature of the substrate and most fishes are juvenile forms living within the estuary until they mature and migrate to the ocean.
69Estuaries Estuaries are sometimes called “marine nurseries” Estuaries are sometimes called “marine nurseries”habitats for many juvenile organisms, especially for fishesmany fish are born and grow up in estuariesmigrate to the open ocean
70Lagoons are isolated to semi-enclosed, shallow, coastal bodies of water that receive little if any fresh water inflow.Lagoons can occur at any latitude and their salinities vary from brackish to hypersaline depending upon climate and local hydrology.Bottom sediments are usually sand or mud eroded which was from the shoreline or swept in through the tidal inlet.In the tropics, the water column is typically isothermal.In the subtropics, salinity generally increases away from the inlet and the lagoon may display inverse flow.
71Salt marshes are intertidal flats covered by grassy vegetation. Marshes are most commonly found in protected areas with a moderate tidal range, such as the landward side of barrier islands.Marshes flood daily at high tide and then drain through a series of channels with the ebb tide.They are one of the most productive environments.Marshes can be divided into two parts: Low salt marshes and High salt marshes.Distribution and density of organisms in salt marshes strongly reflects availability of food, need for protection, and frequency of flooding.
72Mangroves are large woody trees with a dense, complex root system that grows downward from the branchesMangroves are the dominant plant of the tropical and subtropical intertidal areaDistribution of the trees is largely controlled by air temperature, exposure to wave and current attack, tidal range, substrate and sea water chemistryDetritus from the mangrove forms the base of the food chain
73Bibliography“Coral Reefs.” World Book. Chicago: World Book, Vol. 4, p. 257.“Coral Reefs.”