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Pond Problems. Typical problems Aquatic weed identification and controlAquatic weed identification and control –http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/

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Presentation on theme: "Pond Problems. Typical problems Aquatic weed identification and controlAquatic weed identification and control –http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pond Problems

2 Typical problems Aquatic weed identification and controlAquatic weed identification and control –http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/ Low (no) waterLow (no) water Fish stocking or restockingFish stocking or restocking Grubs in fishGrubs in fish GeeseGeese Beaver and muskratsBeaver and muskrats TurtlesTurtles

3 Aquatic Weed Control Treatment recommended when aquatic weeds cover more than 25 percent of the pond’s surface area.Treatment recommended when aquatic weeds cover more than 25 percent of the pond’s surface area. Types of controlTypes of control –physical –chemical –biological

4 Planktonic algae: essential, cause bloom, shade pond bottom, but can cause fish kills by lowering O 2 Aquaplant

5 Filamentous algae: Single cells that form long chains and then float. No known direct food value except for invertebrates. Aquaplant

6 Chara: called muskgrass or skunkweed because of garlic-like odor, often confused with emerged flowering plants, crunchy texture often confused with emerged flowering plants, crunchy texture. Aquaplant

7 Floating Plants (free floating or rooted with floating leaves) DuckweedDuckweed WatermealWatermeal Water lilyWater lily American lotusAmerican lotus

8 Water lily American lotus Aquaplant

9 Duckweed or watermeal?

10 Submerged plants (grow mainly below surface and have very soft stems) PondweedsPondweeds ElodeaElodea WatermilfoilWatermilfoil CoontailCoontail NaiadsNaiads BladderwortBladderwort

11 American pondweed Aquaplant

12 Sago pondweed Aquaplant

13 Elodea- this is not hydrilla Aquaplant

14 Water milfoil Southern naiad Aquaplant

15 Coontail

16 Emergent plants (rooted in water but most of foliage above water) ArrowheadArrowhead CattailCattail Water primroseWater primrose

17

18

19 Water primrose Aquaplant

20 State quarantine Hydrilla Purple loosestrife King Co WA

21 Blue-green algae

22 Biological control Will fish control HABs? –Perhaps –Tilapia Stocking rate 25-50/ac adults Digestion e ffi ciency ranged from 58.6 to 78.1% at water temperature of 77°F. Ingestion rate increased with increasing fish weight and water temperature Major problem is they die when water temperature is below 55°F –Grass carp?

23 Grass Carp as a Biological Control of Aquatic Weeds Can be very effective but they are not a cure-all.Can be very effective but they are not a cure-all. May result in turbid water.May result in turbid water. Overstocking can seriously effect sport fish populations.Overstocking can seriously effect sport fish populations. Cattails, spatterdock and filamentous algae are eaten last.Cattails, spatterdock and filamentous algae are eaten last. Results are not guaranteed.Results are not guaranteed. Triploid onlyTriploid only

24 Grass Carp Guidelines Stock only if pond surface is more than 20 percent covered in vegetation.Stock only if pond surface is more than 20 percent covered in vegetation. Calculate pond size accurately.Calculate pond size accurately. Total elimination of vegetation occurs at 30 fish (10-12 inches) per acre of vegetation.Total elimination of vegetation occurs at 30 fish (10-12 inches) per acre of vegetation. Vegetation control occurs at 15 fish (10-12 inches) per acre of vegetation.Vegetation control occurs at 15 fish (10-12 inches) per acre of vegetation.

25 Chemical Control

26 You must calculate the area and volume of a body of water Volume = average length X average width X average depth Acre feet = surface area (acres) X average depth Area = length X width Surface area in acres = pond area in square feet/43,560 Online calculator

27 Approximate Costs copper complexes2, 4-D*diquat*endothall*fluridoneglyphosate Approximate costs To apply/acre foot$8-16$ $ $48-430$63-126$ *Livestock Drinking Restrictions E = Excellent G = Good Control F = Fair Control P = Poor Control Labels change periodically. Read and follow label instructions and observe water use restrictions.

28 Pond Renovation Is site suitable?Is site suitable? –NRCS for watershed size and soils –Size and depth Not a good idea to go deeper than originalNot a good idea to go deeper than original Drainpipe installationDrainpipe installation SeepageSeepage RotenoneRotenone –Wait one month to restock Fish structureFish structure

29 Stocking Starting overStarting over –Kill existing fish!!!! Common stocking ratesCommon stocking rates –400 bluegill fingerlings –100 red-eared sunfish fingerlings –100 catfish fingerlings –100 largemouth bass fingerlings

30 Response of common aquatic weeds to herbicides Aquatic groupcopper and weedcomplexes2, 4-D*diquat*endothall*fluridoneglyphosate Algae planktonicEPPPPP filamentousEPEG (hydro)PP chara EPGG (hydro)PP nitellaEPGG (hydro)PP Floating Plants bladderwortPG (gran)EE duckweedsPG (LV)GPE water hyacinthPEEPG watermealPPP-FF-G

31 Response of common aquatic weeds to herbicides Aquatic groupcopper and weedcomplexes2, 4-D*diquat*endothall*fluridoneglyphosate Emergent Plants American lotusPEPPFG arrowheadPEGGE cattailsPGGPFE water lilyPEPEE sedges & rushesPFFPG smartweedPEFFE water primrosePEFPFE willowsPEFPE Submersed Plants broadleaf water milfoilPEEEP coontailPGEEEP elodeaPEFEP eurasian water milfoilPEEEEP naiadsPFEEEP pondweedsPPGEEP


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