Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Formulating recommendations for an investigation Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Formulating recommendations for an investigation Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course."— Presentation transcript:

1 Formulating recommendations for an investigation Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course

2 2 Outline of this session 1.Communication with programme managers 2.Attributes of good recommendations Wrap up exercise

3 3 Recommendations link field epidemiology and programme management Plan AssessEvaluate Implement Decision makers Field epidemiologyProgramme management

4 4 The state of mind of the epidemiologist Points that receive attention  Scientific evidence  Methodology Points that may be overlooked  Programme constraints  Competing priorities Decision makers

5 5 The state of mind of the programme manager Points that receive attention  Overall funding envelope  Political pressure  Press attention  Management Points that may be overlooked  Evidence Decision makers

6 6 Maximizing the chances that evidence is used for action Appreciate the point of view of the manager  Don’t flag problems, provide solutions Understand that your recommendations have implications for resources allocation Deliver useful recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Decision makers

7 7 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

8 8 Evidence based recommendations Focus on the recommendations that may be proposed as per the results of the investigations Leave aside -or present separately- general recommendations that are not direct deductions of your investigations  If a measles outbreak was caused by failure to vaccinate, proposing a cold chain review is useless and distracting Checklist

9 November Date of onset December no. of cases Washing of clothes of deceased index case in common pond Cases of acute diarrhea (cholera) by date of onset, Pipulhat, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, 2006 Example of an outbreak

10 10 Cases of acute diarrhea (cholera) by location of residence, Pipulhat, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, November, 2006 Pond 1 Pond 2 Small pond Index case Houses with no case Houses with 1 case Houses with 2 cases Houses with 3 cases Tube well N

11 11 Contaminated tube well Broken platform Short drain Clothes of the deceased patient soaking in the pond Environmental investigations, cholera outbreak, Pipulhat, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, November, 2006

12 12 Cholera outbreak, Pipulhat, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, November, 2006: Conclusions An outbreak V. Cholerae 01 cholera occurred among residents of Pipulhat, South 24- Parganas, West Bengal The outbreak was centered by a pond that may have been contaminated following first cases, including by clothes of a deceased patient An old tube well close by was also probably contaminated What would be your recommendations?

13 13 Proposed recommendations, Cholera outbreak, Pipulhat, South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, November, 2006 Immediate  Stay away from the pond until outbreak is over  Stop using the tube well, disinfect it  Assess if the tube well can be repaired for future, safe use Longer term  Educate the population to prevent contamination of ponds during cholera outbreaks  Maintain tube wells and avoid dangerous locations

14 14 Other possible generic recommendations to avoid in this setting ?General hygiene ?Food safety ?Restriction on street vended food ?Boiling drinking water Checklist Are these recommendations supported by the data? Focus on what caused the current outbreak

15 15 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

16 16 Specific recommendations Focus  Small number  Ranked by order of priority Describe the action to be taken Use one verb by recommendation Avoid “should” Avoid passive voice Ask yourself:  What, Who, When and How? Checklist

17 17 Example of specific recommendations Avoid:  Water supply should be safe  People should be educated Prefer: Ask the water board to protect wells used for drinking water with longer drains and platforms Communicate the specific risk associated with the soiled linen of cholera case patients Checklist

18 18 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

19 19 Feasible recommendations Do not recommend an action that you know will not be done Consider  Logistics  System  Willingness / capacity to pay  Sustainability Identify small steps that may be taken to improve the situation Checklist

20 20 Example of feasible recommendations Avoid:  Repair wells with broken platforms immediately Prefer: Ensure all new wells are constructed with adequate protection Make an inventory of damaged wells Establish a timeline with the water board to repair damaged wells Checklist

21 21 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

22 22 Cost effectiveness is the result you get for the input you give Measure costs Effects must be worth the costs Substantial burden Effective intervention Common sense may be used in the absence of quantified documentation Checklist

23 23 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

24 24 Acceptable recommendations The recommendation has to be acceptable to the decision makers and to the stakeholders  Politically  Culturally  Socially Discuss draft with stakeholders  Improve acceptability  Create ownership Checklist

25 25 Acceptable goals in sanitation Avoid:  Eliminate open air defecation Prefer: Work with the population and rural engineering to identify sanitation solutions adapted to the village Checklist

26 26 Attributes of good recommendations Evidence based Specific Feasible Cost effective Acceptable Ethical Checklist

27 27 Ethical recommendations Principles  Guarantee confidentiality  Ensure equity  Protect minorities  Address gender issues  Avoid stigmatization or finger-pointing Example ?Recommend that the national EPI programme provide a second opportunity for measles in Tamil Nadu that has > 95% coverage while some states are under 40% Checklist

28 28 Take home messages 1.Imagine yourself as a programme manager receiving the information 2.Be accountable to the usefulness of your recommendations

29 29 Exercise Consider an outbreak of hepatitis E in a village in the hills Investigation lead to suspect an unprotected spring as the source of the outbreak  Contaminated by a source case-patient living above the spring and who did not use latrines Two recommendations proposed:  Implement latrines in the whole village  Protect the catchment area of the spring

30 30 Review the two proposed recommendations according to the checklist Implement latrines in the whole village Protect the catchment area of the spring ? Evidence based?? ? Specific?? ? Feasible?? ? Cost effective?? ? Acceptable?? ? Ethical??

31 31 Additional reading Section 5 of operations manual Module 8 of training manual Checklist


Download ppt "Formulating recommendations for an investigation Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) district surveillance officers (DSO) course."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google