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To deeply understand how the SHRIMP CULTURE FEEDING in the closed-loop- pond has been functional, the main theories, philosophies and concepts are copied.

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Presentation on theme: "To deeply understand how the SHRIMP CULTURE FEEDING in the closed-loop- pond has been functional, the main theories, philosophies and concepts are copied."— Presentation transcript:

1 To deeply understand how the SHRIMP CULTURE FEEDING in the closed-loop- pond has been functional, the main theories, philosophies and concepts are copied and simulated from NATURAL FOOD CHAIN of the open sea. So in order to understand how shrimp can survive and grow in symbiosis natural environment, we have to create & stimulate, all factors and conditions of such circumstance in the closed-loop-pond through our intensively TEST & RESEARCH of all hypothesis to find out and certified how such factors is co-functionally and interactively work among each others. 1 Developing Concepts, Background & Theories of Shrimp Culture Mobilization “Symbiosis’s Equilibrium” simulating from “Natural Food Chain” Shrimps Culture in Simulator Closed-loop-pond FLOCK/ PLANKTON WATER (10-30 ppt) SLUDGE SHRIMPS

2 Basic “Farm Management Knowledge” to Know 1. Site Criteria Selection, Pond Design & System (Slide no. 3-18)Slide no Water Preparation for White Shrimp Management (Slide no )Slide no Plankton Preparation as Water Stabilizer (Slide no )(Slide no ) 4. Pond Necessity Equipments (Slide no )(Slide no ) 5. Shrimp (Slide no )(Slide no ) 6. Checking Feed Net & Feeding Program (Slide no )(Slide no White Shrimp Farm Culture Manipulating (Slide no )(Slide no ) 8. Frequency Ask Questions (FAQ) (Slide no. 212 – 222 )(Slide no. 212 – 222 ) 2

3 1. Site and Soil Conditions 2. Pond Design & Construction 2.1 Shape 2.2 Size 2.3 Pond Walls 2.4 Aerator Position 2.5 Settle Pond Trap 2.6 Toxic Substance causes by Sediment waste/sludge 2.7 Cleaning & natural eliminating bacteria Vibrio spp. at pond bottom after harvesting 2.8 Liming for eliminating bacteria 3. Reservoir 4. Inlet piping and pumping system 5. Infrastructure accessibility Site Criteria Selection, Pond Design & System For Mobilizing & Equilibrium Shrimps Culture in Simulator Closed-loop-pond PRODUCTIVITY 3 Site Selection Pond Design Concept Ventilation System & Concept

4 Site Criteria Selection, Pond Design & System 1.Site and Soil Conditions - Should be on flat land. - Clay or soil has high humus (loam based soils) with a pH higher than 5 are preferable. - Should be outside the mangrove area (cause the pyrite to the water), there are high organic content and acidic nature. - Sandy soil may be used, but this can lead to problems, susceptible to erosion, the porous nature of sand allows water to soak through and the penetration of waste deep into the soil. - Potential acid sulphate soil may contain deposits of jarosite when dried that will leach an acidic red / orange solution of iron salts when wet. Acid soil can be increasing the risks of poor production and disease. (Not recommend) - Avoid pollutants form industrial, urban or agricultural run off areas. 4

5 Clay and loam based soil with a pH higher than 5 are preferable. Sandy soil can lead to problems, susceptible to erosion, the porous nature of sand allows water to penetrate of waste deep into the soil. 5

6 Mangrove areas are high content organic and acidic nature. And potential acid sulphate soil may contain deposits of jarosite when dried that will leach an acidic red / orange solution of iron salts when wet. Mangrove effect not recommend Jarosite effect not recommend 6

7 2. Pond Design & Construction 2.1 Shape : the shape is conjunction with aerators’ position and the water flow, uses for controlling & directing the movement of waste. Square or circular ponds are the most efficient. 2.2 Size : smaller ponds are easier to manage, but initial equipment investment are the same expensive to construct & operate as the bigger ones. Under most efficient feeding circumstances, ponds of hectare are the most suitable for high yield systems. 2.3 Pond walls : pond walls and edges should be preventable flooding during heavy rains. Compacting the soil on the pond walls can also significantly reduce erosion and leaching/ sliding. 2.4Aerator position : directing water movement and waste, providing oxygenation. As the number of shrimp vary to the number of aerators required.

8 2.5 Settle pond trap : collecting sediment and sludge waste. - The waste/sludge must be trapped & accumulated at central of pond at the initial pond design, helping of paddlewheels for circulating & directing water/sludge. During feeding of entire period, ponds must be effectively sucked sludge through pump system. - Removed all sediment after harvesting shrimp by tilling new surface soil to prevent acid soil and allow new beneath soil expose to sun light & air for oxidation soil and reducing strong acid-reverse-effect once the pond is rewatering. Acid soils can be reduced by heavy lime application. - Waste on the surface will usually be lighter than the waste at the pond bottom with high-organic-content, black color and will automatically generate toxic substances (including ammonia & hydrogen sulphide), caused unhealthy and unfriendly environment and circumstance to shrimp 8

9 2.6 Toxic Substance causes by Sediment waste/sludge - Sources of waste and sludge : Came from erosion of water-circulation’s ground pond, washes off the soil walls from water-circulation-affect, shrimp faeces, uneaten food, dead plankton, lime and suspended substance from the in-feed water. - The accumulated sludge consumes more oxygen and generated due to decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic material under aerobic and anaerobic, caused ammonia or hydrogen sulphide (is only produced under anaerobic (no air & O 2 ) conditions) which is not friendly environment for shrimp, this such unavoidable-cycling-environment good for bacterial and protozoal pathogens such as Vibrio spp. and Zoothamnium spp. which cause infection disease to shrimp. - Ammonia toxic will show & effective at high pH (8.5 upward) and hydrogen sulphide toxic will see at low pH (7.0 downward). (See table in next page ) - Bacteria and plankton perform the natural-food-chain-dissolving of toxic substance and wastes in shrimp ponds. These processes are regenerated by the amount of oxygen existing in the pond, temperature and water circulation. 9

10 10 Chart show % Ammonia (NH 3 ) at different pH & temperature Ref : Boyd (1982)

11 Pond Chain Reaction of Environment and Conditions 11

12 Accumulated waste is to encourage it to collect in the centre of the pond Good sludge management Bad sludge management Dispersed & Scattering At Central of Pond 12

13 2.7 Cleaning & natural eliminating bacteria Vibrio spp. at pond bottom after harvesting - The most effective technique & solution is to partially-sun-dry the pond bottom 4-7 days, enabling natural microbial action & oxidation to occur, allowing oxygen to penetrate the pond bottom for digesting accumulated waste. - Ploughing for increasing the oxygenation & exposure of the pond sediments, increases the porosity of the soil. Same time adjusting pond ground bottom to be even. - Dry method : after drying, removing all the waste & sludge. The removal of dried waste also exposes underneath soil (especially, in potential acid sulphate areas such as mangrove area with have pyrite and jarosite) that can lead to low pH problem after pumping water in. - Wet method : deploys water high pressure hose to flush waste or sludge out. It is also quicker and more efficient than the dry method. 13

14 Dry methodWet method Time takenSlow or impossible in wet season Quick, possible in any season CostDepends on area - usually higher Depends on area Solid waste removal efficiency VariableGood Removal of waste within sandy soil VariableGood Form of wasteSolid – easy to handleSuspension – difficult to handle Acid sulphate soilsNeeds careful management Less oxidation & leaching Sterilizing effectsVariableRequires additional lime Disposal of wasteNeeds site for dumpingRequires settling pond. 14

15 Wet method Using high pressure water to flush the waste out The waste into the settling pond trap Dry method 15

16 After grading Press soil with grader. 16 After grading

17 2.8 Liming for eliminating bacteria - Type of lime: Hydrated lime = Ca(OH) 2 is used to increase the pH of water or soil. It can have a substantial influence on pH but should not be used in the afternoon when the pH would naturally be at the highest level. Its also use for germicide. : Quick lime = CaO/ Ca.MgO is highly reactive agent form of lime, directly use to increase soils pH during pond preparation, simultaneously killing all germ and bacteria in the soil, dramatically effect on water pH. (Should not be directly used in ponds containing shrimp, occasionally, used by dissolving in water and pouring such solution into pond to increase low water pH) Soil pHQuantity of CaCO 3 lime (kg/hectare) Quantity of Ca(OH) 2 lime (kg/hectare) > 6< 1,000< to 6< 2,000< 1,000 < 5< 3,000< 1,500 Recommended lime application during pond preparation 17

18 3.Reservoir A reservoir is always useful for controlling pond environment & also play an essential role as buffer to prevent diseases by advancingly eliminate CARRIER entering the farm. The reservoir acts as a large biological filter, improving quality of water. 4.Inlet piping and pumping system The inlet should be located & laid to avoid reversing recycling-water from the drainage canal; the best position will depend on the local water flow conditions and levels. between reservoir & ponds. 5. Infrastructure accessibility - All roads and waterway infrastructure must be reachable to farm or ponds within 3 to 6 hours traveling time of the hatchery in order to save surviving rate of the post larvae (baby shrimp). - It must also be possible to move the harvested shrimp to the processing plant within a reasonable time. In order to save weight of shrimp The harvested transportationThe post larvae transportation 18 Reverse to slide 2


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