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ClimateMaster Geothermal What, When, Where, & How.

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Presentation on theme: "ClimateMaster Geothermal What, When, Where, & How."— Presentation transcript:

1 ClimateMaster Geothermal What, When, Where, & How

2 What Is Geothermal?

3 Boiler/TowerSystems

4 Ground-Source(Geothermal)

5 Several Variations of Geothermal Vertical Closed Loop Horizontal Closed Loop Hybrid (Geo and Tower/Boiler) Lake Closed Loop Closed to the Aquifer Standing Column Well

6 Vertical Loop System

7 Verticals

8 Vertical Loops 3/4” pipe - One vertical bore per ton. One circuit and 3 gpm flow per ton. Many areas require bentonite grouting Some locales restrict drilling Bore per ton –Cold climates 150 ft per ton –Warm climates 230 ft per ton

9 Horizontal Loop System (Slinky shown)

10 Horizontal Loop Types

11 Horizontal Loops Limited tonnage due to land area Backhoe or trench excavation. In areas with any rock typically backhoe only. 1 circuit and 3 gpm flow per ton w/ 3/4” pipe Pipe per ton –Cold Climates - 400 to 1000 ft –Warm Climates - 700 to 1800 ft

12 Ground Source - Closed Loops Benefits –Lower maintenance –No water requirements Hurdles –Requires land space –First cost

13 Ground Loop 3 gpm flow per ton of cooling 1 circuit or flow path per ton of cooling w/ 3/4” loop pipe Loop Temperatures –40 - 90 deg F

14 Hybrid Systems Ground Loop/Tower Ground Loop/Boiler Benefits: –Off Peak Operation –Low First Cost Hybrid Loops

15 Lake Loop System


17 Pond Loops Least expensive ground loop Minimum 300 ft2 per ton and 9 feet deep In north need ice cover for operation (no aeration). Utilizes 39 degF water temp. Pond should be within 300’ of structure 300 ft Pipe per ton

18 Closed to the Aquifer Systems

19 Ground Water - Plate Frame HX Benefits –Lower first cost –No land requirement –Isolated internal loop via HX Hurdles –Requires annual HX maintenance –Requires injection well –Typically used only with more than 4 total units

20 Standing Column Well

21 Ground Water - Direct Use Benefits –Lowest first cost –No land requirement Hurdles –Requires clean water and more maintenance –Getting rid of water can be difficult –Larger pump and pressure tank –Typically used only with 3 or less total units

22 Heat of extraction/rejection Moving Heat to Water or Air waterrefrigair oror

23 Heat of extraction HEATING water refrig air WORK1.08 kw=3.680 kbtu/hr 11.6 kbtu/hr15.3 kbtu/hr COP = 15.3/3.68 = 4.15

24 Heat of rejection COOLING waterrefrigair work 15.2 kbtu/hr 0.95 kw=3.2 kbtu/hr 12.0 kbtu/hr EER = 12.0/0.95 = 12.6

25 Refrigeration Circuit Overview Compressor Expansion Device To Loop Source Reversing Valve Air Coil Suction Discharge Coax

26 Refrigeration Circuit Overview Cooling Mode (GS036) Compressor Expansion Device To Cooling Tower Reversing Valve Air Coil Suction Discharge Coax 155 F 218 psi 53 F 80 F 60 F 62 F 90 F 60 F 76 psi 100 F 92 F 9gpm a) Lvg air coil temp is lower than ent air coil temp is due to pressure drop through air coil. b) Suction temp at compressor is higher than lvg air coil temp because vapor continues to superheat as it travels back to compressor.

27 Refrigeration Circuit Overview Heating Mode (GS036) Compressor Expansion Device To Boiler Reversing Valve Air Coil Suction Discharge Coax 168 F 248 psi 168 F 70 F 107 F 96 F 70 F 66 F 86 psi 62 F 59 F9gpm 62 F




31 How did Geothermal Gain Momentum?

32 History Behind Geothermal

33 Late 70’s-Early 1980’s Energy crisis: Fossil fuel shortages and price shocks Dependence shifts to electricity Opportunity builds for geothermal technology Technical competence for geothermal water source heat pumps develops in the industry

34 Mid 1980’s Electric utilities experiencing “peak demands” DSM (demand side management) becomes a strategic planning tool Extensive monitoring reveals geothermal efficiency and market potential Geothermal becomes recognized as DSM planning tool

35 Late 1980’s Performance Standards established for geothermal systems Support grows from regulators, research groups and utilities Substantial performance in utility DSM programs A proven technology competitive with conventional fuels

36 Early 1990’s Geothermal systems increase in performance and functionality EPA, DOE, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute), NRECA (National Rural Electric Cooperative Assoc), EEI (Edison Electric Institute) recognize potential for geothermal Utility geothermal DSM programs begin implementation

37 Mid 1990’s Geothermal recognized as key technology to reduce greenhouse gases EPA and DOE release reports confirming industry growth potential Government, utility, and industry consortium formed to assist in the development of the geothermal market

38 Late 1990’s-Year 2000 Geothermal becomes recognized as a major renewable energy source on an international scale

39 History of Ground Source Heat Pumps Installations Based upon water source heat pump from Florida of 1950’s Ground loop development using iron and copper loops 1930’s and 40’s. PB and PE pipe made viable in late 1970’s. Three regions of development in 1979: –OSU - J. Bose, J. Partin, G. Parker –Ft Wayne, IN - Dan Ellis –Ontario - Dave Hatherton

40 Antifreeze Materials Methanol - least expensive and good heat heat transfer Ethanol - More expensive and best heat transfer Propylene glycol - non-toxic and expensive, but lowest heat transfer

41 Pipe and Fittings

42 Pipe and Fittings Material High Density polyethylene (HDPE )pipe developed for natural gas distribution industry Socket or Butt heat fusion joints are stronger than the pipe wall itself 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, and 2” sizes common Coils and straight lengths Many fittings available in tee’s, elbow’s, and couplings

43 Loop Design

44 Loop Terminology Header Supply/Return Lines Loop/Heat Transfer Field

45 Loop Terminology (cont.) Manifold Supply/Return Lines To Earth Loop To Building Supply/Return Isolation Valves

46 Loop Design Loop style and total trench/bore length obtained from software design Goal is 2.5 - 3 gpm flow per ton of capacity (minimum of 2.25 gpm) Loop circuiting is designed for: –Low pressure drop –Good heat transfer Headers are piped in reverse return to even out pressure drop in parallel circuits

47 Pumps Option 1 - Redundant Alternate - Size single pump to handle complete circulation install duplicate redundant pump in parallel and control alternately Option 2 - Redundant Staged - Install two pumps in parallel that can handle load and stage them with alternating controls

48 Option 3 - Variable speed pumps with solenoids at each unit Option 4 - Distributed pumping - Install pumps at each heat pump with single pipe system and continuous circulation

49 Circuit Design rules 1 circuit per ton of capacity in 3/4” 2.5 - 3 gpm per ton of capacity

50 Header Design

51 Design Do’s and Don’ts Design air scoop/trap between building and earth loops to entrap air stemming from wshp maintenance Utilize Mechanical room or outside pit to house manifold of supply/return lines with individual shut-offs and main loop to building Ensure equipment is rated for temperature range of loop WLHP, GWHP or GLHP In hybrid design size loop for heating load and tower for extra cooling required

52 Flushing Flush exterior loop first using system pumps. Flush supply/return one at a time. Flush interior loop with exterior isolated so as not to move air to earth loop

53 Antifreeze Antifreeze to 15 deg F below coldest loop temperature expected Always add alcohols below water level to reduce fumes Check antifreeze concentrations using the specific gravity charts

54 Equipment

55 Components Allowing Geothermal Copeland UltraTech™ two-stage unloading scroll compressor Oversized lanced fin / rifled tube refrigerant- to-air coil Insulated Refrig Circuit Large coaxial refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger Bidirectional TXV

56 Ground source versus air source Water has better heat transfer than air Improved low temp heating capacity Lower peak demand Outdoor ambient conditions, damage, and vandalism Noisy and unsightly outdoor unit Better dehumidification Higher efficiencies

57 ARI Ratings Summary ARI/ISO/ASHARE 13256-1 Ground loop heat pump –Based upon typical extreme loop temperatures –Htg 32 degF and clg 77 degF

58  Lincoln, NE school district compared leading systems for 3 new schools: Comparative Analysis of Life- Cycle Costs of Heat Pumps System150 Tons$/sq. ft. Geothermal WLHP$1,021,257$14.66 Air Cooled Recip Chiller/VAV$1,129,286$16.21 Water Cooled Cent Chiller/VAV$1,164,268$16.71 Note: Air Cooled Chiller is 1kw/ton. Water Cooled Chiller is 0.6kw/ton. Vertical Bore Loop Field cost is $2.50 included in the Geo WLHP cost.


60 Garrett Office Buildings Edmond, Oklahoma

61 Geothermal Building 20,000 Sq. Ft.

62 VAV Building 15,000 Sq. Ft.

63 Floor 2 Conference

64 Floor 2 Private Office

65 Floor 2 Open Office Space

66 Geothermal Building Floor 2 Heat Pump Zoning HP-8 HP-11 HP-15HP-14 HP-13 HP-12 HP-9,10

67 Loop Field Overview

68 Geothermal Building Loop Field Site Plan

69 Loop Field Details

70 Geothermal Mechanical Room

71 Geothermal Mechanical Room

72 Floor 1 Heat Pump Piping

73 Garrett Office Buildings Highway View

74 Geothermal Building Roof View

75 VAV Building Roof View

76 VAV Building Central Air Handler

77 VAV Building Air-Cooled Condensing Unit

78 VAV Building Boiler Room

79 Garrett Office Buildings 2000 Energy Consumption

80 Garrett Office Buildings 2000 Energy Consumption Profile

81 Garrett Office Buildings Installation Costs Geothermal System circa 1998 –Complete exterior loop, mechanical room, interior PE piping, flushing and unit startup, heat pumps, duct work, exhausts, MUA system, timeclock-based controls –$128,700 ($2,574 per ton) VAV System circa 1987 –air-cooled condenser, VAV air handler, boiler, VAV boxes with reheat coils, economizer, electronic controls –$100,000 ($2000 per ton) –costs per building owner do not include structural or architectural

82 ClimateMaster Geothermal Heat Pumps

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