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Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in Jordan Ali Badran Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Jordan.

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Presentation on theme: "Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in Jordan Ali Badran Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Jordan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Present and Future Status of Solar Energy in Jordan Ali Badran Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of Jordan

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4 Solar Energy Research Works (Since 1990) No. of WorksSystem Type Thermal Active Systems 10 Flat-Plate Collectors 2 Evacuated Tube 17 Desalination 4 Cooling 2 Concentrators 11 Ponds 4 Cookers 4 Industrial Applications 11 Solar Radiation Models 3 Passive Systems 7 Photovoltaic 75Total

5 Solar Energy Research Works (Since 1990)

6 Solar Collector works in Jordan 1970: First collector designed and built in the country by the Royal Scientific Society. 1973: Two local workshops produced 50 solar water heating systems per year. 1986: 12% of Jordanian homes used SWH. 1992: 20% of Jordanian homes (about 158,700) used SWH. 2002: 25 factories and workshops produced 40,000 systems per year (17,000 m 2 )

7 Collector system distribution SectorArea,m 2 Size Housing1,085,000Small Systems Hotels30,000Large Systems Hospitals10,000Large Systems Other (Institutional, Athletic, Industrial) 10,000Large Systems 1,135,000Total

8 Solar Collector Problems Low efficiency, Large area, High Cost, Intermittent water supply, Collection of energy for a single use: water heating. Not integrated with the roof system: Architectural adaptation problems.

9 Improving the Efficiency Improving bond conductance Thermal contact between tubes and absorber plate is of paramount importance for the conduction of heat from the plate to the working fluid inside the tubes.

10 Improper Fit Method

11 Improving the Efficiency, cont’d. It was found that bond conductance for locally manufactured collectors is very low ( W/m. o C), compared with universal value (30 W/m. o C ). Improvement in manufacturing techniques can be used to improve, but their effect is limited to 6.3 W/m. o C. Improvement in material is a must in order to improve bond conductance.

12 Integration with Building Roof: E xample

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14 The Inverted Trickle Concept

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16 Improvements on Inverted Trickle

17 Improvement of solar still: Augmentation with solar collector

18 Improvement with double glazing

19 Activities and Projects of the Royal Scientific Society (RSS) and the National Energy Research Center (NERC) Basin-type solar stills Parabolic trough concentrators Brackish water desalination

20 Solar refrigeration for a vaccine cabinet

21 Evacuated Tube Collectors

22 Evacuated Tube vs. Flat Plate

23 Solar Ponds

24 Solar pond project objectives Pond bottom lining system and the possibility of using local clays for lining Thermal stability under local weather conditions, including wind and rain. Convection cells and the effect of wall slope and surface roughness on stability. Effect of using Carnalite salt( Some kind of Dead Sea salt) on stability.

25 Solar Pond Project Objectives, Cont’d. Augmentation of pond with flat-plate collectors and the effect of that on stability. Use of pond for greenhouse heating. Feasibility of using the pond for the generation of electricity. Comparison of using the pond vs. flat- plate collectors.

26 Industrial Applications

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29 RSS and NERC Industrial Projects Solar system for water heating for Jordan Dairy Co. Solar system for water heating for the Sweedish Co. for the Handicaped. Solar system for water heating for the Ibn Al- Nafees Hospital in Irbid. Solar space heating system for Princess Sumayya University (PSUT) building. Solar swimming pool heating system for a Jordanian firm.

30 Solar Cookers, Box Type

31 Solar Cookers, Concentrator Type

32 Solar Cookers, Portable Type

33 Solar Cookers, with Heat Pipe

34 Solar PV Pumping

35 Activities of Renewable Energy Office (Now the Energy Center) at the U. of Jordan in Cooperation with KADDB

36 Environmental Guest House Project (Let’s Try)

37 Institutional Arrangements The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Law The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Law (No 64) stipulates the encouragement of the utilization of energy alternatives, such as natural gas and renewable energies for electricity generation. (No 64) stipulates the encouragement of the utilization of energy alternatives, such as natural gas and renewable energies for electricity generation. The National Agenda incorporates several benchmarks The National Agenda incorporates several benchmarks to achieve this goal, some of which are: to achieve this goal, some of which are: - 80% of residences should be using hot water solar collectors by % of residences should be using hot water solar collectors by The percentage of renewable energy share of the national consumption should be increased from the present 1% to 3% by The percentage of renewable energy share of the national consumption should be increased from the present 1% to 3% by 2015.

38 Institutional Red Tape Energy saving devices and material were exempted from customs, but material of dual use, such as steel sheets, steel pipes and glazing were not. Energy saving devices and material were exempted from customs, but material of dual use, such as steel sheets, steel pipes and glazing were not. This ended up by having some of the imported evacuated tube collectors in some cases cheaper than the locally-made flat-plate collectors. This ended up by having some of the imported evacuated tube collectors in some cases cheaper than the locally-made flat-plate collectors.

39 Future Prospects The stipulations of the National Agenda should be re-established based on the current prices of oil. It is expected that: The stipulations of the National Agenda should be re-established based on the current prices of oil. It is expected that: All conventional, Diesel fuel-based central heating systems will be redundant. Solar energy-based central heating systems will be a serious competitor. All conventional, Diesel fuel-based central heating systems will be redundant. Solar energy-based central heating systems will be a serious competitor. Domestic hot water solar heaters will prevail in almost 100% of residences. Domestic hot water solar heaters will prevail in almost 100% of residences.

40 Wish List Flat-plate collectors Flat-plate collectors - Development of new material that is cheap, non-corrosive, durable and highly conductive to improve bond conductance. - Development of new material that is cheap, non-corrosive, durable and highly conductive to improve bond conductance. - Application of press-fit techniques in the manufacturing of fin-tube absorber plate. - Application of press-fit techniques in the manufacturing of fin-tube absorber plate. - Integration of solar collectors with building architecture - Integration of solar collectors with building architecture

41 Wish List, cont ’ d. Evacuated Tube collectors Evacuated Tube collectors -The use of evacuated tube collectors at the right temperature level, for example, in central heating, cooking, laundry, air conditioning … etc. -The use of evacuated tube collectors at the right temperature level, for example, in central heating, cooking, laundry, air conditioning … etc.

42 Wish List, cont ’ d. Solar Desalination Solar Desalination -Integration of solar desalination with solar collectors to make use of the area of collectors for more than one purpose. -Integration of solar desalination with solar collectors to make use of the area of collectors for more than one purpose. -Development of a pilot-plant installation -Development of a pilot-plant installation that uses multi-grade desalinated water for several purposes (drinking and agriculture) that uses multi-grade desalinated water for several purposes (drinking and agriculture)

43 Wish List, cont ’ d. Solar Concentrators: Solar Concentrators: - Making use of satellite dish technology to - Making use of satellite dish technology to obtain high optical concentrator efficiency. obtain high optical concentrator efficiency. - Improving concentrators will have a substantial effect on solar cooling and refrigeration, which will affect quality of food and vaccine storage in rural and remote areas. - Improving concentrators will have a substantial effect on solar cooling and refrigeration, which will affect quality of food and vaccine storage in rural and remote areas.

44 Wish List, cont ’ d. Solar Ponds Solar Ponds - Research should be made to cover missing topics in solar ponds, mainly desalination, power generation and district heating. - Research should be made to cover missing topics in solar ponds, mainly desalination, power generation and district heating. Solar Cooking Solar Cooking - Concentration should be made on solar cookers that use heat pipes. This would enable cooking while staying indoors. - Concentration should be made on solar cookers that use heat pipes. This would enable cooking while staying indoors.

45 Wish List, cont ’ d. Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Integration of PV and thermal systems should be investigated to obtain better efficiency. PV cells of 20% efficiency, for example may be combined with a thermal solar collector whose efficiency is 60% to obtain 68% total efficiency for the system. Integration of PV and thermal systems should be investigated to obtain better efficiency. PV cells of 20% efficiency, for example may be combined with a thermal solar collector whose efficiency is 60% to obtain 68% total efficiency for the system.

46 Wish List, cont ’ d. Solar radiation prediction Solar radiation prediction Existing models do not take into account environmental factors such as land plantation cover and climate type. Finding those factors is crucial to enable the use of solar radiation prediction models such as the Angstrom-type regression method. Existing models do not take into account environmental factors such as land plantation cover and climate type. Finding those factors is crucial to enable the use of solar radiation prediction models such as the Angstrom-type regression method.

47 Wish List, cont ’ d. Institutional Measures Institutional Measures - Granting tax incentives to solar system users. - Granting tax incentives to solar system users. - Finding financing tools for large solar systems. - Finding financing tools for large solar systems. - Enabling solar PV users to sell electricity to the grid. - Enabling solar PV users to sell electricity to the grid. - Training technicians. - Training technicians.

48 Thank You


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