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STABILIZATION PONDS STABILIZATION PONDS Eng. Dr. Erich Kellner November, 7 th – 2012 São Carlos - Brazil Summer School on Wastewater Treatment Plants and.

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Presentation on theme: "STABILIZATION PONDS STABILIZATION PONDS Eng. Dr. Erich Kellner November, 7 th – 2012 São Carlos - Brazil Summer School on Wastewater Treatment Plants and."— Presentation transcript:

1 STABILIZATION PONDS STABILIZATION PONDS Eng. Dr. Erich Kellner November, 7 th – 2012 São Carlos - Brazil Summer School on Wastewater Treatment Plants and Management 1 Lector of Civil Engeneering Department of São Carlos Federal University (UFSCar)

2 Stabilization ponds are biological treatment systems in which stabilization of organic material is carried out by bacterial oxidation and/or photosynthetic reduction of algae. Figure 1: Stabilization ponds – Lins (SP) - Brazil Stabilization ponds: 2

3 Figure 2: Configurations of wastewater treatment systems by stabilizations ponds Source: adapted from von Sperling (2000) Basic Configurations of Wastewater Treatment Systems by Stabilization Ponds: 3

4 Pros and Cons of using stabilization ponds: Simplicity to built, operate and maintain; Low operational cost; Good quality on effluent; Need large areas; Limited and dependent on weather; Quality of effluent varies; PROSCONS 4

5 Figure 3: Anaerobic Pond– São Carlos (SP) - Brazil Anaerobic Ponds : Basins of 3m to 5m (10 feet to 17 feet) depth receiving continuous organic load of wastewater so that anaerobic conditions are met. Sedimentation pond. High waste water loading – depletes all O 2. Solids settle at bottom of the to pond. Anaerobic digestion of sludge occurs at the bottom of the pond. 5

6 Figure 4: Metabolic process in anaerobic digestion Source: adapted from Pescod (1995) Anaerobic Ponds: Hydrolysis - Complex organics (proteins and fats broken down to simpler compounds by various bacteria Acidogenesis (Fermentation) – Fatty acids and alcohols oxidized,amino acids and carbohydrates fermented, produce volatile fatty acids and hydrogen Acetogenesis – conversion of complex fatty acids to acetic acid Methanogenesis - conversion of acetic acid to methane and CO 2 and CO 2,H 2 to methane 6

7 Anaerobic Ponds - Design Criteria: Time of Hydraulic Detention  = between 4 to 6 days for the final plan Liquid depth = between 4 to 5m Volumetric organic load ( v ) = 0.08 and 0.4 kgDBO/m 3 pond. day Superficial organic load ( s ) > 1000 kgDBO/ha.day Sludge accumulation = 0.01 to 0.03 m 3 /inhab.year Design is highly empirical – based on volumetric load (g BOD/m 3 /day) and Hydraulic Detention Time (day) 7

8 Anaerobic Ponds - Design Criteria: Average Air Temperature Coldest Month ( o C) Removed DBO (%) < T + 20 >2570 Table: Expected efficiency to reduce DBO due to average air temperature in the coldest month 8

9 Figure 5: Facultative ponds – Barretos (SP) - Brazil Facultative Ponds: Basins of 1.5m to 2m depth. To have clear water, light penetration and photosynthetic production of oxygen to decompose organic material take place easier Part of the solids present in the wastewater settle and are biodegradable in an anaerobic process 9

10 Facultative Ponds: 10

11 Facultative Pond Interactions: Figure 6: Definition of interactions occurring in a facultative pond Source: Tchobanoglous and Schroeder (1985) 11

12 Facultative Ponds - Design Criteria: PRIMARY FACULTATIVE PONDS: Superficial application rate limit* ( S ) = 20.T – 60 kgDBO/ha.day** Expected efficiency to reduce DBO (Empirical equation based on complete mixture model)*: Notes: Refers to half depth in the area Average air temperature in the coldest month ( o C). let  be the efficiency (%); s superficial application rate (kgDBO/ha.day) 12

13 SECONDARY FACULTATIVE POND: 14.T – o C Superficial application rate limit* ( S ) = 350. (1,107-0,002.T) T-25 kgDBO/ha.day** p/T <17 o C Expected efficiency to reduce DBO (Empirical equation based on complete mixture model)*: Facultative Ponds - Design Criteria: let  be the efficiency(%); s superficial application rate (kgDBO/ha.day) Notes: * Refers to half depth in the area. ** Average air temperature in the coldest month ( o C). 13

14 Figure 7: Maturation ponds – Barretos (SP) - Brazil Maturation Ponds: Basins of between 0.8m and 1.5m depth. Normally, 1.0 m depth is used. The main objective of maturation ponds is to remove pathogenic microrganisms present in the wastewater, which occur mainly due to sunlight in the water column. 14

15 Maturation Ponds - Design Criteria: Superficial organic load ( s ) < 50 kgDBO/ha.day HDT for each pond (  m ) > 7 days, with at least 3 maturation ponds in sequence. Decrease of pathogenic microrganisms: Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) 15

16 But what kind of reactor do we have here? 16

17 AP FP1 FP2 Figure 9: Rodamina B injection in FP1 Source: Moreira (2006) Figure 8: Stabilization Ponds in Novo Horizonte (SP) Source: Moreira (2006) Hydrodynamic Test: 17

18 18 Theoretical hydraulic Detention Time teórico was 164 hours. Real hydraulic Detention Time resulted in 55 hours, with dispersion number(d) equal to !!!. Active volume of 33.6% (3.5h) and recuperation of dye mass of 95.6%. Source: (Kellner, Moreira & Pires, 2009). Figure 10: Non-dimensional concentration curve of Rodamina B in function of measured time in FP1 exit Source: Kellner, Moreira & Pires (2009). Hydrodynamic Test:

19 19 Temperature ( o C) Depth (m) Concentration (  g/l) [Animation done from results presented by Kellner, Moreira & Pires (2009).] Influence of Thermal Stratification in the Distribution of Rodamina B in the Water Column of FP1

20 According to Kellner & Pires (2000), temperature gradient 0.6 o C/m, in stabilization ponds with temperature of 25 o C, can lead to a thermal stratification state. Thermal Stratification of a stabilization pond affects… …the useful volume, …the dispersion number, …the HDT, etc. 20

21 Design and Operational Problems: Figure 11: Facultative Pond built in shaded area 21

22 Figure 12: Infiltration problem in anaerobic pond Design and Operational Problems: 22

23 Facultative Pond with red brown colour Possible causes: Organic material overload Presence of photosynthetic bacteria that oxidates sulphyte and does not produce oxygen does not contribute to reducing BOD Design and Operational problems: 23

24 Facultative Pond withmilky green colour Possible causes: The pond is in an autofloculation process due to increase in pH and temperature Precipitation of hydroxide magnesium or calcium dragging algae and other microrganisms with it Design and Operational Problems: 24

25 Facultative Pond with yellow green colour Possible causes: Growth of rotifers, protozoas or crustaceans which feed on algae; There could be a significant decrease in the DO and possibly a bad odor from the anaerobic decomposition of OM. Design and Operational Problems: 25

26 Facultative Pond with green blue colour Possible causes: Significant growth of cianobacteria; Appearance of native certain species which decompose easily, causing bad odors, reducing the penetration of sunlight and diminishing oxygen production. Design and Operational Problems: 26

27 Facultative pond with grey colour Possible causes: Overload of organic material and/or short detention time Fermentation in sludge layer incomplete. Design and operational problems: 27

28 Design and operational problems:: 28 Not having desanders can cause silting in the ponds Absence of Grit Removal System

29 Design and operational problems:: 29 Absence of Grit Removal System …is able to change the flow and wastewater in the ponds

30 Anaerobic pond – Problems of bad odor 30 Free surface makesexchange of gases easier (CH 4, H 2 S,…) for the atmosphere

31 Anaerobicpond - Problems with bad odor (possibility of using methane) 31

32 Sludge: 32

33 Sludge conditioning (Solution or Environmental passivity?) 33 Figure: Sludge conditioning Sludge conditioning in materia lsacks can make it passive.

34 Thank You! 34


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