Presentation on theme: "Beginning the Journey of Differentiated Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Beginning the Journey of Differentiated Instruction Maria MolinaEducational Consultant
2 Welcome! Please find a place to sit and then do the following anchor activity. Complete the Frayer Diagram using key words and phrases.DefinitionInformationDifferentiationExamplesNon-Examples
3 Make a date!12: :006: :00On their PowerPoint sheet, have participants meet 4 other people they do not know and make a date. After they have filled their time slots, they can go back to their seats.
4 Community Agreements Participate Actively Ask Questions Learn by Doing Set your leaning into action!
5 differentiating instruction means “shaking up” what At its most basic level,differentiating instructionmeans “shaking up” whatgoes on in the classroomso that students havemultiple options fortaking in information,making sense of ideas,and expressingwhat they learn.
6 Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching. It’s teaching so that “typical” students; students with disabilities; students who are gifted; and students from a range of cultural, ethnic, and language groups can learn together, well.Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching.Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners.Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.
7 It’s making sure each student learns what he or she should learn by establishing clear goals, assessing persistently to see where each student is relative to the goals, and adjusting instruction based on assessment information—so that each student can learn as much as possible as efficiently as possible.
8 Differentiation is not… NewIEP’s for all; individualized instructionTrackingConstant group workOccasional variation on teaching style“On the spot”
9 What are the students saying? When I feel lost in class…I play with my hairI wish the teacher would know how I feel and would help me.I want to go home and watch TV.I get mad.I feel scared. Sometimes I try to listen harder but mostly it doesn’t work.What does it feel like when classes move too slowly…I color my nails with a pen.One thing my sister taught me to do is to listen to music in my head or to think back to a movie, to its funny parts.
10 Consequences of not Differentiating Socrates was a famous Greek teacher who went around giving people advice. They killed him. Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock.Bach was the most famous composer in the world, and so was Handel. Handel was half-German, Half-Italian and half English. He was very large Bach died from 1750 to the present. Beethoven wrote music even though he was deaf. He was so deaf he wrote loud music. He took long walks in the forest even when everyone was calling for him. Beethoven expired in 1827 and later died for this.I am not sure how clouds get formed. But the clouds know how to do it, and that is the important thing.Writing at the same time as Shakespeare was Miguel Cervantes. He wrote Donkey Hote. The next great author was John Milton. Milton wroteParadise Lost. Then his wife died and he wrote Paradise regained.TOTAL TIME 5 MINUTESHave participants jump in and read. Although humorous, these are actual responses on tests. These students did not ever “get it” when they were being taught. What do the participants think happened?
12 Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Shaped by mindset & guided by general principles of differentiationRespectful tasksQuality CurriculumFlexible groupingContinual assessmentBldg. CommunityTeachers can differentiate throughContentProductAffect/EnvironmentProcessAccording to students’ReadinessInterestLearning ProfileThrough a variety of instructional strategies such as:RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Think-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts…Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies….Intelligence Preferences…Orbitals…Complex Instruction…4MAT…Web Quests & Web Inquiry…ETC.
13 Teacher’s can differentiate by… ContentProcessProduct
14 Content:Common Ways to Differentiate Content:Leveled textsSame theme; different context topicVaried math operationsInterest centers; free choice timeMini lessons on how to …Books on tape; highlighted text, reading partnersStrickland- ASCDWhat students learn and the materials or mechanisms through which that is accomplished.
15 ProcessCommon Ways to Differentiate Process:Opportunity to work in pairs or groupsGroup rolesDictated journal entriesUse of technologyAmount or kind of teacher help availableVarious types of graphic organizers and supporting documentsVaried task directionsTiered activitiesStrickland -ASCDIt describes activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information. How they learn it.
16 ProductCommon Ways to Differentiate ProductProduct optionsTiered products Varied criteria for successVaried timelinesVaried AudiencesStrickland - ASCDThey are vehicles through which students demonstrate and extend what they have learned
17 Community Builder: “Four of a Kind” DifferencesDifferences DifferencesSimilarities(Find four common similarities)
18 According to the students’… ReadinessInterestLearning Style
19 Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a students works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place.-Tomlinson 2003
20 Appropriate Challenge Zone of Proximal Development Target ForChallengePerspiringtaskToo OverpoweringAppropriate ChallengeTooComfortablePANICPANICZone of Proximal Developmentand FlowParalyzingtaskKnowntaskPANICKaren Lelli Austin
21 Teaching Up If we assume that students can do more than we think they can and plan to prove our assumptionis correct, it most likely will be.The most powerful differentiation will alwaysoccur when we ask ourselves the questions,“What are the essential understandings and skillsthat serve as a baseline for my most able students?” and “How can I plan to support all my students inachieving those baselines?”Always scaffold up. Never dumb down!!
23 Tiered Tasks Criteria for Effective Tiering A readiness-based approach designed to help all learners work with the same essential information, ideas, and skills, but at a degree of difficulty “just a little too hard” for that learner.Criteria for Effective TieringAll tasks are focused on the same essential knowledge, understanding and skillAll tasks at a high level of thinkingAll tasks equally engagingMany Approaches Can Be TieredActivities, labs, centers, journal prompts, homework, products, tests/assessments, discussion questions . . .C. Tomlinson
24 Developing a Tiered Activity 1 2 Select the activity organizerconceptgeneralizationThink about your students/use assessmentsreadiness rangeinterestslearning profiletalentsEssential to buildinga framework ofunderstandingskillsreadingthinkinginformation3Create an activity that isinterestinghigh levelcauses students to usekey skill(s) to understanda key idea4Chart the complexity of the activityHigh skill/ComplexityLow skill/complexity5Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, inmaterials – basic to advancedform of expression – from familiar to unfamiliarfrom personal experience to removed from personal experienceequalizer6Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements
25 1) Learning goals of lesson: What should students KNOW (facts) Tiered Lesson Planning SheetTiering is a readiness response, and usually differentiates the skill levels of students. The skills are the “Do” part of the learning goals, the verbs. Sometimes, though, the content level or the difficulty/complexity of the problem or task is the differentiating element in a tiered lesson.1) Learning goals of lesson:What should students KNOW (facts)What should students be able to DO (verbs)What should students UNDERSTAND (statement)) If you have taught this lesson or activity before, what group of students would most benefit from a modification to this version? How will you preassess and find this group?Describe the grade level activity for the lesson.What element(s) should be changed to make the activity more appropriate in challenge to the defined group? Use the Equalizer to analyze the lesson and determine how you might improve the lesson for the defined group of learners. Write that first cloned version here.If time permits, what might be a second cloned version that would benefit a different group of learners?Sandra Page 919/
26 Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681 Tiered Lesson on Sequence The teacher will assign the student the sequence task of most appropriate challenge based on pre-assessment. Students may work alone or with a skill-alike partner. Students may present to teacher individually, or they may present to another student who has done a different sequence.Learning Goals: Place items in order of occurrence. Use vocabulary teacher has introduced (first, next, last; or first, second, third; or before and after)Using 3 simple pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Man blowing up balloon. Child with balloon in hand, smiling. Child with sad face and balloon popping.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, next, last; or before and after.Using 4-5 pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Photo of bread on plate and person unscrewing peanut butter jar. Photo of peanut butter being spread on bread. Photo of second slice of bread being placed on top. Photo of knife being used to cut sandwich into diagonals. Photo of child eating sandwich.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, second, third; or before and after.Sandra Page 919/
27 Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681 Make a Pizza: a tiered Pre-K reading lesson Learning Goals: Students will organize ideas, create a list, and learn to recognize initial consonant sounds in words,The teacher prepares a plastic baggy for every student. Inside each baggy are photos/pictures of food items and the names of those items. Students will sort the items onto a paper plate (labeled Dough) and will place the names of the items on a blank sheet of paper (labeled List.)Every student will have a baggy, a Dough plate, and a blank List.Each student will have 8 pictures. Choices of pictures might include: Cheese, Carrots, Peppers, Pears, Pineapple, Pickles, Fish, Meat, Mustard, Tomatoes, Trix cereal, Salt, Sauce, Sugar, etc. Some items should be yucky or funny.The initial letters in each word should be ones that you have recently practiced or want the students to review. The word choices will vary with the readiness of the student, choosing easier initial letter sounds for Group A and harder words and initial letter sounds for Group B.sounds for Group B.Sandra Page 919/
28 Tiering: Make a pizza, continued Group APlace 8 easier words and pictures in baggy. Each picture will have a box below it with the word typed in easy to read font.The students must choose items that they will want on their pizza. Each student will cut apart the picture and word and paste the word on the blank List and paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. They must choose at least 3 items from the baggy.Using a red crayon, they may color on sauce (if you wish, do this before pasting).The student will read and point to the list the items that they must buy to make their pizza.Group B Eight pictures and 8 words are separately placed in a baggy. The words may have more difficult initial sounds. Students will match pictures to words, first. To do this, they may either sound out the word or look for the picture and word in a picture dictionary or teacher made reference list. The student chooses items that they want on their pizza. They paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. (Again, they may color on the plate, if you wish, to show red sauce. Do this before or after pasting pictures.) The student will then copy/write the words onto the blank list & read aloud the items to make that pizza. If writing is too difficult for some, student may paste words.Sandra Page 919/
29 Varying Journal Prompting B. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Be sure to arrange them in the order in which they happened rather than the order they are written about in the book. Defend your selection of events and your chronology.A. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Explain why you selected these events.
30 Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys.Activities Common to All Three GroupsExplore the relationship between density and buoyancyDetermine densityConduct an experimentWrite a lab reportWork at a high level of thinkingShare findings with the class
31 The Soda GroupGiven four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can.They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy.
32 The Brine & Egg GroupStudents developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing.They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.
33 The Boat GroupStudents first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race.They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density.They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold.They built and tested the boat and its projected load.They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.
34 Adding Fractions Blue Group Green GroupUse Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6.Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book.Red GroupUse Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems.Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it.Blue GroupManipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length.Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions.
35 Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students.- Tomlinson 2003
36 Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681 Reading Homework Choice Board You will have 3 reading assignments this week. You must choose to do an option to respond to each reading as homework, and choose 3 different options total.Complete a set of notes or make an outline of the key ideasCreate a Net-Knowledge Page by using the Internet to gather hyperlinks for URLs of websites related to the topic, key ideas, and images to support the reading.Rewrite the reading as a newspaper article. Use the 5 W’s, and include details to support your main ideas.Create a set of five newspaper headlines representing key ideasFind 25 important words or phrases in the reading. Group the terms and create your own concept map or graphic organizer to illustrate your understanding of the reading.Create a visual timeline with captions to highlight key events or actions in the reading.Create a top ten list of things you should understand about the reading. Prepare the list on an overhead transparency to present to your peers.Draw 3 pictures with captions that illustrate three important ideas.Visit a teacher-recommended website related to the reading and summarize your findings. Be sure to relate the reading to the website.This contract gives students choices that appeal to learning preferences. Don’t feel you must grade or go over every homework item. Ask students which of these response techniques helped them best understand the reading.Sandra Page 919/
37 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things -- read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers, diaries of slaves), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc.As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related toculture, conflict change andinterdependence.
38 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (cont’d) She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were:music reading food bookssports/recreation transportation travelmysteries people heroes/ villainscartoons families medicineteenagers humor clothing
39 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (cont’d) Students had as supports for their work:a planning calendarcriteria for qualitycheck-in dates- options for expressing what they learned- data gathering matrix (optional)- class discussions on findings, progress, snags-mini-lessons on research (optional)
41 Sandra Page email@example.com 919/929-0681 Reading Center Choice Board: You must read 3 things in a column, a row, or a diagonal to get a bingo this week.Read Highlights or Sesame Street magazineListening Center: Listen to a story on tapeRead a Map in the reading center.Draw three or more pictures to tell a story.Use the computer story program to read a story and answer questions.Read a picture book from the classroom library.Read a story or book with an adult or a 2nd grade student.Build a model using blocks or clay or draw an animal, a person, or a place in a story that you have read.Use Leapfrog to read a story aloud.Sandra Page 919/
42 Learning profile refers to how students learn best Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture, and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. - Tomlinson 2003
43 Sternberg’s Three Intelligences AnalyticalPracticalCreative
44 Primary Measuring: Sternberg Tasks CUse a ribbon to measure and find 7 things that are the same lengthWhich of these five items will fit into the box? You must find a way to measure the items and the box BEFORE you try each item to see if it fitsUse the strip of red paper I give you. Find some things (like the crayon as I demo-ed) and measure the strip of paper with each item. How many each _ lengths is the red strip?Children explore and discover simple ways to measure. [HSCOF-3.3.4, 4.2.3] [GLCE-M.UN ]Sandra Page 919/
45 Sandra Page firstname.lastname@example.org 919/929-0681 Primary Transportation by learning modality continuedKinestheticconstruct/build a vehicle using classroom materialsdemonstrate how it goes; use vocab words to describeOralidentify a vehicle and its parts as you tell a storydescribe what makes it move and how it goes; use vocabVisualdraw a picture of a vehicle and label its partsshow how you made your vehicle and how it goes by making a posterAuditoryidentify a vehicle through the sound that it makes using sound effects tape; use vocabuse a sound or song with a vehicle to show how it moves and goesSandra Page 919/
46 Using Learning Modalities in Reading Practice with Sight Words Kinestheticword puzzles (building sight words with form-fitting pieces)building words with magnetic letters, letter cards, Elkonin boxesclapping letters and/or rhymes of wordsOralflashcard practice with partnersaying/reading aloud sentence/book containing sight wordssinging song with sight words (Humpty Dumpty – Humpty Dumpty had to go, Humpty Dumpty then said ‘NO’!Visualuse tree map to sort sight words by 2, 3, 4,etc. letterslocate sight words within a textword wall activities (rhyming, riddles, etc.)cloze activity of placing sight words within a sentenceAuditoryread words with an emotion (in – scary voice, the – happy voice)echo reading of sight words or sentence using sight wordslisten to story with text present and sight words highlightedSandra Page 919/
48 Learning Profile Science Activity Meteorologist:You are a meteorologist working for Channel 29 News. The show will “air” in 10 minutes with the weekend’s forecast, but all the equipment is failing. Look out your “windows” and use the clouds to predict the weather forecast for the local community. You can either write your script for the news show explaining your prediction and your reasons for the prediction, create a poster or prop for the news show that shows the audience what you think the weather will do and why, or role-play the part of the meteorologist and verbally present your forecast predictions to the audience.Cindy Strickland 08
49 Learner Cards Jamala Fisher 3 Front Back Rdg Level Sch.Affil +321 –IntSoccer Mysteries Video GamesLP S/PQ/N ELL V/A/KG/SA/P/CP/WBackNanci Smith ‘03
51 DIFFERENTIATION Community Curriculum Instruction Assessment Community Teacher-Student ConnectionsSafe EnvironmentShared PartnershipCurriculumEssential KUDsEngagementTeaching UpInstructionAddressing R, I, LPFlexible GroupingMultiple StrategiesFlexible ManagementAssessmentDIFFERENTIATIONCommunityPre-assessmentOn-going Assessment toInform Instruction3-P Grading
52 Respectful learning environment is: Key Principle #1: All students participate in respectful work in a respectful environment.Respectful learning environment is:WelcomingRespectful of differencesSafeEmphasis on growthSuccess- orientedFairCollaborative
53 Keys to Connecting with Kids (Tomlinson 2008) Start class with kid talkGo to student eventsKeep student data cardsShare own interestsAttend extracurricular activitiesTake notes during classAsk for studentinput
54 Keys to Connecting with Kids (Tomlinson 2008) Use Socratic or student-led discussionsShare your own storiesListenSeek varied perspectivesTalk at the doorEarly interest assessmentsSmall group instructionDialogue journalsStudent conferences
55 RECIPE OF ME!DATE DUE:_______________You're a one-of-a-kind design made up of a unique blend of ingredients. For example you may be a mix of strength, eight hours of sleep, and determination combined with your size (long or short legs,etc.) your coloring (hair,eyes,etc.) and other characteristics to make a complete recipe of you.Think carefully about your personality, values, what makes you happy, what makes you special, favorite foods, hobbies, or any other characteristics that make up you. Use strong adjectives to describe you. Brainstorm first and write down you ideas.REQUIRED MATERIALS:Recipe or lined index card(s) (enough for your recipe)One small picture from home (These will be put in a class recipe book for the class, so pictures will not be returned. If you don't want to give away a photo, draw a self-portrait instead.)All of the above mounted on a 9"x12" piece of construction paper with a border drawn by hand or computer.
56 RECIPE OF ME!DATE DUE:_______________DIRECTIONS:Using food recipe measurements, list the ingredients that make YOU at the top of the index card in recipe format. Then skip some lines and give directions on how to mix the ingredients together. Tell whether there is a cooking time and temperature. Give your recipe a name.EXTRA POINTS:If the name of your recipe uses alliteration (words beginning with the same letter), you will receive bonus points.
57 Pair & ShareWith your 3:00 o’clock partner answer the following questions…..
58 Ask Yourself about Your Classroom Community . . . How do we begin and end our time together?In what ways do students assume ownership of the classroom?How do we understand and celebrate our similarities? Our differences?How do I know that each student feels included in the community? What action do I take to ensure this?
59 Key Principle #2: High Quality Curriculum “We have to know where we want to end up before we start out – and plan to get there” Carol Ann Tomlinson
60 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should … KNOWFactsVocabularyDefinitionsUNDERSTANDPrinciples/ generalizationsBig ideas of the disciplineBE ABLE TO DOProcessesSkills
61 K U D non-negotiables of differentiation Mindset on-going assessment (pre-assessment, formative, summative)flexible groupingrespectful tasksreadiness, interest, learning profileteaching upKnow-Understand-Do (KUD)instructional strategies for differentiationKDifferentiation is a philosophy (more than a set of strategies) designed tomaximize the capacity of each learner.Mindset shapes teaching and learning.Teacher connection with kids opens them up to the risk of learning.Community multiplies support for students & the teacher.On-going assessment guides quality differentiation.The quality of what we teach contributes to the impact of how weteach-- & vice versa.Clarity of learning goals (KUDs)engagement & understandingDifferentiation professionalizes teachers.UDReflect on your philosophy and practice.Analyze & critique differentiated tasks using key principles & vocabularyDefine differentiationDetermine next steps in implementing differentiation in your work
62 Transportation Pre-K/Kindergarten using Learning Modality PreferencesKnow: Different Forms of Transportation Understand: Transportation/vehicles helps us move from here to there. Do: Students will describe a vehicle using the vocabulary and knowledge learned on what makes things move and go. Vocabulary: wings, wheels, pedal, sail, pull, push, float, sink air, water, land, space fast, slowSandra Page 919/
63 Please Complete the Task with the Color that Best Fits Your Role Specialists in special ed., reading, ELLTeachers who have taught low-end classesTeachers who have taught high end classes/clustersGeneral ed. Teachers/prospective teachers, & administratorsUniversity faculty/administrators
64 RAFT: ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC Discouraged Math StudentTeacherNote Left on Her DeskHere’s why I can’t do mathNew TeacherA ColleagueTrue ConfessionWhen I see that low level class coming…A Smart KidHimselfDroodlesThis class is too hard…A Kid with David Letterman GenesAudience of other KidsTop Ten ListHow you can tell who the smart kids (or dumb kids) are in schoolProfessorStudent TeachersChartWatch out for those subliminal messages about abilityEQ: How do perceptions of ability affect teaching and learning?
65 Pair & ShareWith your 12:00 o’clock partner share your RAFT activity
66 Role Audience Format Topic R.A.F.T.RoleAudienceFormatTopic
68 Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Language Arts Science SemicolonMiddle SchoolDiary EntryI Wish You Really Understood Where I BelongN.Y. TimesPublicOp Ed pieceHow our Language Defines Who We AreHuck FinnTom SawyerNote hidden in a tree knotA Few Things You Should KnowRain DropFuture DropletsAdvice ColumnThe Beauty of CyclesLungOwnerOwner’s GuideTo Maximize Product LifeRain ForestJohn Q. CitizenPaste Up “Ransom” NoteBefore It’s Too LateReporterObituaryHitler is DeadMartin Luther KingTV audience of 2010SpeechThe Dream RevisitedThomas JeffersonCurrent Residents of VirginiaFull page newspaper adIf I could Talk to You NowFractionsWhole numbersPetitionTo Be Considered A Part of the FamilyA word problemStudents in your classSet of directionsHow to Get to Know MeLanguage ArtsScienceHistoryMathFormat based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
69 Sample RAFT Strips Role Audience Format Topic Gingerbread Man Our ClassOral ResponseI never should have listened to the foxSquantoOther Native AmericansPictographsI can help the inept settlersBand MemberOther Band MembersDemo TapeHere’s how it goesPositive NumbersNegative NumbersDating AdOpposites AttractRational NumbersIrrational NumbersSongMust you go on forever?DecimalsFractionsPoemDon’t you get my point?PerimeterAreaDiary EntryHow your shape affects meMonetVan GoghLetterI wish you’d shed more light on the subject!Joan of ArcSelfSoliloquyTo recant, or not to recant; that is the questionTreeUrban SprawlEditorialMy life is worth savingThoreauPublic of his dayLetter to the EditorWhy I moved to the pondYoung ChromosomeExperienced ChromosomeChildren’s BookWhat becomes of us in mitosis?First GraderKindergartnerAdWhat’s best about 1st grade?
70 The Predictive Power of Mindset GrowthFixedSuccess comes from beingsmartGenetics, environmentdetermine what we can doSome kids are smart—somearen’tTeachers can’t overridestudents’ profilesSuccess comes from effortWith hard work, most studentscan do most thingsTeachers can override students’profilesA key role of the teacher is to sethigh goals, provide high support,ensure student focus—to findthe thing that makes schoolwork for a student
71 Creating common learning goals We have to know where we want all students to end up before we can think intelligently about how we want them to get there!
72 In a Differentiated Classroom… The teacher may vary the KNOWS & DOswith caution and based on evidencethat a student needs to learn backwardsas well as forward to catch up—or that astudent needs to move ahead in orderto keep learning.The UNDERSTANDS are the constant fulcrumon which effective differentiation pivotsfor all students.
73 New World Explorers Do KNOW Names of New World Explorers Key events of contributionUNDERSTANDExploration involvesriskcosts and benefitssuccess and failureDoUse resource materials to illustrate& support ideas
74 New World ExplorersUsing a teacher-provided list of resources and list of product options, show how 2 key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide proof/evidence.Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how New World Explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit principles
75 An Assignment-Based Question SecondaryElementaryWhat challenges does it (might it) present for you to create & teach w/understandings on center stage?What benefits might occur for students who studied your curriculum organized by KUDS?Which do you feel is (will be) the greater challenge for you: teaching for engagement or teaching for understanding?What beliefs or attitudes might secondary teachers need to alter in order to teach for both engagement & understanding?
76 Key Principle #3: Commit to Ongoing Assessments “The teacher who emphasizes assessment to inform instruction understands that only by staying close to student progress can he or she guide students success”. Tomlinson, 2008
77 WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS LEARNING PROFILE INTEREST Content CurrentInterestsPotentialTalents/PassionsAreas of Strengthand WeaknessLearningPreferencesSelf AwarenessContentKnowledgeSkillsConcepts/Principles
78 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Feedback and Goal SettingPre-assessment(Finding Out)Formative Assessment(Keeping Track & Checking-Up)Summative Assessment(Making sure)Pre-testGraphing for GreatnessInventoryKWLChecklistObservationSelf-evaluationQuestioningSmall group check Exit CardsPeer evaluation Portfolio Check3-minute pause QuizObservation Journal EntryTalk-around Self-evaluationQuestioning Windshield CheckUnit TestPerformance TaskProduct/ExhibitDemonstrationPortfolio ReviewRemember to check for prerequisite skills
80 MATH INVENTORY DATE NAME 1. How do you feel about math?2. Do you think you are good in math? Why?3. What are your best areas in math?4. What are your weakest areas in math?5. Do you think it is important to be good in math? Why?6. What do you think are characteristics of students who are good in math? Why?7. What do you do when you come to a math problem you can’t solve?8. How do you use math outside of class?9. What do you usually do after school when you get home?10. Do you most like to do when you have free time? Why?11. What else should I know about you to teach you effectively this year?
81 Jo Gusman (2005), Practical Strategies for Accelerating the Literacy Skills & Content Learning of Your English Language Learners. New Horizons
82 At My Best…Thinking about your strengths and best features, please answer the following:1. A positive thing people say about me is:When I’m feeling great at school, it’s probably because:A dream I have for myself is:A thing I like spending time on is:Something that captures my imagination is:The best thing about my family is:My strength as a learner is:What I can contribute to the classroom is:A thing I wish people knew about me is:I’m proud of:
83 Strength-Based Assessments Likes mechanical thingsReads magazines about motorcyclesWants to learn more about computersSeen as a big brother to neighborhood kidsWants to travel some dayLikes to talk about ideasTypical Assessment Info.Average IQAverage reading achievementAbove average math computationMissed 10 days of school this quarter2 in-school suspensions this quarterBased on idea from Sousa & Bender (2008). How the Brain Influences Behavior:Management Strategies for Every Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
85 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________ Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________. Write as much as you can.InformationDefinitionFractionsExamplesNon-ExamplesUseful for pre-assessment & formative assessment of readiness in many grades & subjects
86 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz. Write as much as you can.DefinitionInformationJazzPerformers/ ComposersPersonal Experience
87 EXIT CARDS On your exit card--- Explain the difference between simile andmetaphor. Give someexamples of each aspart of your explanation.on-going assessment of readiness
88 EXIT CARDS - Learning Preferences We used the followinglearning strategies in thislesson:3 minute pauseT-P-SVisualizingWhat learning strategy orstrategies seemed to work bestfor you? Why?on-going assessment of learning profile
89 3-2-1 Card 3 things I learned from the friction lab… Name:3 things I learned from the friction lab…2 questions I still have about friction…1 thing way I see friction working in the world around me….on-going assessment of readiness
90 1-2-3 Summarizer 1 thing I really like about my first draft After reading over my rough draft---1 thing I really like about my first draft2 resources I can use to help improvemy draft.3 revisions I can make to improveon-going assessment of to help studentself-awareness and planning
91 An Example of Pre-assessing Student Readiness in a Primary Classroom
103 Another Veteran Teacher's Epiphany about Pre-assessmentHigh School Unit onThe Agricultural RevolutionMajor Emphasis to LayGroundwork for Rest of YearReading, Lecture, Videos,Journal Entries, Homework,etc.Three Weeks into the Unit…“So…what’s agriculture?”
104 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student LearningLorna M. EarlCorwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp
105 Assessment & Differentiation... It’s about guiding students, not judging them.It’s about informing instruction, not filling grade books.It’s about before, during, & after—not just after.It’s about teaching for success—not gotcha teaching.What's Different?
106 Assessment & Differentiation... Work with a group of 3 to develop three ways to expressthe role of assessment in differentiation.You may work collaboratively or in parallel fashion todevelop your 3 expressions.Please be ready to share your 3 expressions withanother group.Heterogeneous Learning Profile Group
107 Defensible Differentiation: AlwaysTeaches UpNeverWaters down
108 Key Principle #4: Flexible Grouping Flexible grouping ensures that all students learn to work independently, cooperatively and collaboratively in a variety of settings and working with a variety of peers.Increases chance that learning activities will match more student’s needs more of the time, leading to faster, better, deeper learning…without tracking.
109 How Can We Be More Flexible With: TeachingTimeMaterials & TasksGroupsSpaceProvide notes for students who struggle with taking themAllow students to move ahead in texts & with skillsProvide reading & web material at different levelsMeet with students in small groups to re-teach or extendProvide space for peer collaborationStop often for student sharing and questionsProvide 2nd opportunities for masteryUse contracts, tiering, mini-workshops, etc.Use heterogeneous review groupsUse cue walls, help boards, word wallsUse past student work as modelsAllow drafts to be turned in early for teacher reviewUse computer programs for review & extensionUse homogeneous work groups (esp. for adv. learners)Provide space for learning &/or enrichment centersTo Address Readiness
110 How Can We Be More Flexible With: TeachingTimeMaterials & TasksGroupsSpaceAttach key understandings to student interestsUse some time in each unit for relevanceUse interest-based materialsUse interest-alike groupsDevote some space in the room to student inquiryShare your interests & how key ideas & skills relate to themMake time for student-generated inquiry (e.g. Orbitals)Focus RAFTs journal prompts, perf. tasks, etc. on interestsUse student expert-groupsMake space available for student collaborationInvite students to co-teach on interestsConclude lessons with “so what” timeUse biography & autobiographyUse Jigsaw groupsUse interest centers or boardsTo Address Interests
111 How Can We Be More Flexible With: TeachingTimeMaterials & TasksGroupsSpacePresent in multiple modes (visual, auditory, demonstration)Provide time to work alone and time to work with peersUse Analytical, Creative, & Practical ApplicationsUse Complex Instruction groupsHave quiet space availableGive students advance signals/cues to prompt thinkingHonor student pace of working when possibleProvide both competition & collaborationUse similar & mixed learning profile groups as part of flexible groupingEnsure places to work without visual distractionsUse examples related to both genders & many culturesHonor cultural perspectives on timeHelp students use auditory vs. visual preferencesUse synthesis groups to express ideas in varied modesUse an “independent study area”To Address Learning Profile
112 Where can you be flexible... …to ensurethat youconnectessentialcontent……with eachstudent inyour class?Talk with someone whose role is similar to yours.
114 Flexible Grouping Intentional teacher movement of students within a relatively short period of timeamong a variety of contextsrelated to student readiness, interests,& learning preferenceswith the intent to “audition” studentsin varied settings,allowing both students and teacherto see other studentsand themselves through fresh eyes.
119 Below is a link to ASCD’s online Professional Development Feedback Survey. We encourage all participants to complete the online evaluation within the next ten (10) days. All responses will be anonymously reported to ASCD.Thank you for taking the time to honestly evaluate the program. The results we receive help us to improve the quality of services you receive