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Beginning the Journey of Differentiated Instruction Maria Molina Educational Consultant.

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1 Beginning the Journey of Differentiated Instruction Maria Molina Educational Consultant

2 Welcome! Please find a place to sit and then do the following anchor activity. Complete the Frayer Diagram using key words and phrases. Differentiation Definition Information Examples Non-Examples

3 Make a date! 12:003:00 6:009:00

4 Community Agreements Participate Actively Ask Questions Learn by Doing Set your leaning into action!

5 At its most basic level, differentiating instruction shaking up means “shaking up” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.

6 It’s teaching so that “typical” students; students with disabilities; students who are gifted; and students from a range of cultural, ethnic, and language groups can learn together, well. Not just inclusion, but inclusive teaching. Based on Peterson, J., & Hitte, M. (2003). Inclusive teaching: Creating effective schools for all learners. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, p. xix.

7 It’s making sure each student learns what he or she should learn by establishing clear goals, assessing persistently to see where each student is relative to the goals, and adjusting instruction based on assessment information— so that each student can learn as much as possible as efficiently as possible.

8 Differentiation is not… New IEP’s for all; individualized instruction Tracking Constant group work Occasional variation on teaching style “On the spot”

9 What are the students saying? When I feel lost in class… -I play with my hair -I wish the teacher would know how I feel and would help me. -I want to go home and watch TV. -I get mad. -I feel scared. Sometimes I try to listen harder but mostly it doesn’t work. What does it feel like when classes move too slowly… -I color my nails with a pen. -One thing my sister taught me to do is to listen to music in my head or to think back to a movie, to its funny parts.

10 Consequences of not Differentiating Socrates was a famous Greek teacher who went around giving people advice. They killed him. Socrates died from an overdose of wedlock. Bach was the most famous composer in the world, and so was Handel. Handel was half-German, Half-Italian and half English. He was very large Bach died from 1750 to the present. Beethoven wrote music even though he was deaf. He was so deaf he wrote loud music. He took long walks in the forest even when everyone was calling for him. Beethoven expired in 1827 and later died for this. I am not sure how clouds get formed. But the clouds know how to do it, and that is the important thing. Writing at the same time as Shakespeare was Miguel Cervantes. He wrote Donkey Hote. The next great author was John Milton. Milton wrote Paradise Lost. Then his wife died and he wrote Paradise regained.

11 Why should I differentiate?

12 Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Shaped by mindset & guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasksFlexible groupingContinual assessment Teachers can differentiate through Content Process ProductAffect/Environment According to students’ Readiness Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS…Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding Reading…Cubing…Think-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts…Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies….Intelligence Preferences…Orbitals…Complex Instruction…4MAT…Web Quests & Web Inquiry…ETC. Quality Curriculum Bldg. Community InterestLearning Profile

13 Teacher’s can differentiate by… ContentProcessProduct

14 Content: Common Ways to Differentiate Content:  Leveled texts  Same theme; different context topic  Varied math operations  Interest centers; free choice time  Mini lessons on how to …  Books on tape; highlighted text, reading partners Strickland- ASCD What students learn and the materials or mechanisms through which that is accomplished.

15 Process Common Ways to Differentiate Process:  Opportunity to work in pairs or groups  Group roles  Dictated journal entries  Use of technology  Amount or kind of teacher help available  Various types of graphic organizers and supporting documents  Varied task directions  Tiered activities Strickland - ASCD It describes activities designed to ensure that students use key skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information. How they learn it.

16 Product Common Ways to Differentiate Product  Product options  Tiered products Varied criteria for success  Varied timelines  Varied Audiences Strickland - ASCD They are vehicles through which students demonstrate and extend what they have learned

17 Community Builder: “Four of a Kind” Differences Differences Differences Differences Similarities (Find four common similarities)

18 According to the students’… ReadinessInterestLearning Style

19 Readiness refers to a student’s knowledge, understanding, and skill related to a particular sequence of learning. Only when a students works at a level of difficulty that is both challenging and attainable for that student does learning take place. - Tomlinson 2003

20 Too Comfortable Too Overpowering Appropriate Challenge Target For Challenge Zone of Proximal Development and Flow Paralyzing task Known task Perspiring task PANIC Karen Lelli Austin

21 If we assume that students can do more than we think they can and plan to prove our assumption is correct, it most likely will be. The most powerful differentiation will always occur when we ask ourselves the questions, “What are the essential understandings and skills that serve as a baseline for my most able students?” and “How can I plan to support all my students in achieving those baselines?” Always scaffold up. Never dumb down!!


23 Tiered Tasks A readiness-based approach designed to help all learners work with the same essential information, ideas, and skills, but at a degree of difficulty “just a little too hard” for that learner. Criteria for Effective Tiering All tasks are focused on the same essential knowledge, understanding and skill All tasks at a high level of thinking All tasks equally engaging Many Approaches Can Be Tiered Activities, labs, centers, journal prompts, homework, products, tests/assessments, discussion questions... C. Tomlinson

24 Developing a Tiered Activity Select the activity organizer concept generalization Essential to building a framework of understanding Think about your students/use assessments readiness range interests learning profile talents skills reading thinking information Create an activity that is interesting high level causes students to use key skill(s) to understand a key idea Chart the complexity of the activity High skill/ Complexity Low skill/ complexity Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, in materials – basic to advanced form of expression – from familiar to unfamiliar from personal experience to removed from personal experience equalizer Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements 1 3 5 2 4 6

25 Tiered Lesson Planning Sheet Tiering is a readiness response, and usually differentiates the skill levels of students. The skills are the “Do” part of the learning goals, the verbs. Sometimes, though, the content level or the difficulty/complexity of the problem or task is the differentiating element in a tiered lesson. 1) Learning goals of lesson:  What should students KNOW (facts)  What should students be able to DO (verbs)  What should students UNDERSTAND (statement) 2) If you have taught this lesson or activity before, what group of students would most benefit from a modification to this version? How will you preassess and find this group? 1) Describe the grade level activity for the lesson. 1)What element(s) should be changed to make the activity more appropriate in challenge to the defined group? Use the Equalizer to analyze the lesson and determine how you might improve the lesson for the defined group of learners. Write that first cloned version here. 1)If time permits, what might be a second cloned version that would benefit a different group of learners? Sandra Page 919/929-0681

26 Tiered Lesson on Sequence The teacher will assign the student the sequence task of most appropriate challenge based on pre-assessment. Students may work alone or with a skill-alike partner. Students may present to teacher individually, or they may present to another student who has done a different sequence. Learning Goals: Place items in order of occurrence. Use vocabulary teacher has introduced (first, next, last; or first, second, third; or before and after) 1.Using 3 simple pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Man blowing up balloon. Child with balloon in hand, smiling. Child with sad face and balloon popping.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, next, last; or before and after. 2.Using 4-5 pictures, a student will put them in order of occurrence. (Example: Photo of bread on plate and person unscrewing peanut butter jar. Photo of peanut butter being spread on bread. Photo of second slice of bread being placed on top. Photo of knife being used to cut sandwich into diagonals. Photo of child eating sandwich.) Student will then explain aloud to another student and teacher, describing the action sequence. Remind student to use either first, second, third; or before and after. Sandra Page 919/929-0681

27 Make a Pizza: a tiered Pre-K reading lesson Learning Goals: Students will organize ideas, create a list, and learn to recognize initial consonant sounds in words, sounds for Group B. The teacher prepares a plastic baggy for every student. Inside each baggy are photos/pictures of food items and the names of those items. Students will sort the items onto a paper plate (labeled Dough) and will place the names of the items on a blank sheet of paper (labeled List.) Every student will have a baggy, a Dough plate, and a blank List. Each student will have 8 pictures. Choices of pictures might include: Cheese, Carrots, Peppers, Pears, Pineapple, Pickles, Fish, Meat, Mustard, Tomatoes, Trix cereal, Salt, Sauce, Sugar, etc. Some items should be yucky or funny. The initial letters in each word should be ones that you have recently practiced or want the students to review. The word choices will vary with the readiness of the student, choosing easier initial letter sounds for Group A and harder words and initial letter sounds for Group B. Sandra Page 919/929-0681

28 Group A Place 8 easier words and pictures in baggy. Each picture will have a box below it with the word typed in easy to read font. The students must choose items that they will want on their pizza. Each student will cut apart the picture and word and paste the word on the blank List and paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. They must choose at least 3 items from the baggy. Using a red crayon, they may color on sauce (if you wish, do this before pasting). The student will read and point to the list the items that they must buy to make their pizza. Group B Eight pictures and 8 words are separately placed in a baggy. The words may have more difficult initial sounds. Students will match pictures to words, first. To do this, they may either sound out the word or look for the picture and word in a picture dictionary or teacher made reference list. The student chooses items that they want on their pizza. They paste the picture on the blank Dough plate. (Again, they may color on the plate, if you wish, to show red sauce. Do this before or after pasting pictures.) The student will then copy/write the words onto the blank list & read aloud the items to make that pizza. If writing is too difficult for some, student may paste words. Tiering: Make a pizza, continued Sandra Page 919/929-0681

29 Varying Journal Prompting A. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Explain why you selected these events. B. Create a fortune lines visual (with narration) that shows the emotional state of the little prince at what you believe are the 8-10 most important points in the book. Be sure to arrange them in the order in which they happened rather than the order they are written about in the book. Defend your selection of events and your chronology.

30 Tiered Activity Subject: Science Concepts: Density & Buoyancy Introduction: All students take part in an introductory discussion, read the chapter, and watch a lab activity on floating toys. Activities Common to All Three Groups Explore the relationship between density and buoyancy Determine density Conduct an experiment Write a lab report Work at a high level of thinking Share findings with the class

31 The Soda Group Given four cans of different kinds of soda, students determined whether each would float by measuring the density of each can. They completed a lab procedure form by stating the materials, procedures, and conclusions. In an analysis section, they included an explanation of why the cans floated and sank, and stated the relationship between density and buoyancy.

32 The Brine & Egg Group Students developed a prescribed procedure for measuring salt, heating water, dissolving the salt in the water, cooling the brine, determining the mass of water, determining the mass of an egg, recording all data in a data table, pouring the egg on the cool mixture, stirring the solution and observing. They answered questions about their procedures and observations, as well as questions about why a person can float in water, whether it is easier to float in fresh or seawater, why a helium filled balloon floats in air, and the relationship between density and buoyancy.

33 The Boat Group Students first wrote advice to college students building concrete boats to enter in a boat race. They then determined the density of a ball of clay, drew a boat design for a clay boat, noting its dimensions and its density. They used cylinders of aluminum, brass, and steel as well as aluminum nails for cargo, and determined the maximum amount of cargo their boat could hold. They built and tested the boat and its projected load. They wrote a descriptive lab report to include explanations of why the clay ball sank, and the boat was able to float, the relationship between density and buoyancy, and how freighters made of steel can carry iron ore and other metal cargo.

34 Adding Fractions Green Group Use Cuisinaire rods or fraction circles to model simple fraction addition problems. Begin with common denominators and work up to denominators with common factors such as 3 and 6. Explain the pitfalls and hurrahs of adding fractions by making a picture book. Red Group Use Venn diagrams to model LCMs. Explain how this process can be used to find common denominators. Use the method on more challenging addition problems. Write a manual on how to add fractions. It must include why a common denominator is needed, and at least three different ways to find it. Blue Group Manipulatives such as Cuisinaire rods and fraction circles will be available as a resource for the group. Students use factor trees and lists of multiples to find common denominators. Using this approach, pairs and triplets of fractions are rewritten using common denominators. End by adding several different problem of increasing challenge and length. Suzie says that adding fractions is like a game: you just need to know the rules. Write game instructions explaining the rules of adding fractions.

35 Interest refers to those topics or pursuits that evoke curiosity and passion in a learner. Thus, highly effective teachers attend both to developing interests and as yet undiscovered interests in their students. - Tomlinson 2003

36 Reading Homework Choice Board You will have 3 reading assignments this week. You must choose to do an option to respond to each reading as homework, and choose 3 different options total. Complete a set of notes or make an outline of the key ideas Create a Net-Knowledge Page by using the Internet to gather hyperlinks for URLs of websites related to the topic, key ideas, and images to support the reading. Rewrite the reading as a newspaper article. Use the 5 W’s, and include details to support your main ideas. Create a set of five newspaper headlines representing key ideas Find 25 important words or phrases in the reading. Group the terms and create your own concept map or graphic organizer to illustrate your understanding of the reading. Create a visual timeline with captions to highlight key events or actions in the reading. Create a top ten list of things you should understand about the reading. Prepare the list on an overhead transparency to present to your peers. Draw 3 pictures with captions that illustrate three important ideas. Visit a teacher-recommended website related to the reading and summarize your findings. Be sure to relate the reading to the website. This contract gives students choices that appeal to learning preferences. Don’t feel you must grade or go over every homework item. Ask students which of these response techniques helped them best understand the reading. Sandra Page 919/929-0681

37 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things -- read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers, diaries of slaves), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc. As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related to culture, conflict change and interdependence.

38 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (cont’d) She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were: music reading food books sports/recreation transportation travel mysteries people heroes/ villains cartoons families medicine teenagers humor clothing

39 Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (cont’d) Students had as supports for their work: -a planning calendar -criteria for quality -check-in dates - options for expressing what they learned - data gathering matrix (optional) - class discussions on findings, progress, snags -mini-lessons on research (optional)

40 40

41 Reading Center Choice Board: You must read 3 things in a column, a row, or a diagonal to get a bingo this week. Read Highlights or Sesame Street magazine Listening Center: Listen to a story on tape Read a Map in the reading center. Draw three or more pictures to tell a story. Use the computer story program to read a story and answer questions. Read a picture book from the classroom library. Read a story or book with an adult or a 2 nd grade student. Build a model using blocks or clay or draw an animal, a person, or a place in a story that you have read. Use Leapfrog to read a story aloud. Sandra Page 919/929-0681

42 Learning profile refers to how students learn best. Those include learning style, intelligence preference, culture, and gender. If classrooms can offer and support different modes of learning, it is likely that more students will learn effectively and efficiently. - Tomlinson 2003

43 Sternberg’s Three Intelligences Analytical Practical Creative

44 Primary Measuring: Sternberg Tasks APC Use a ribbon to measure and find 7 things that are the same length Which of these five items will fit into the box? You must find a way to measure the items and the box BEFORE you try each item to see if it fits Use the strip of red paper I give you. Find some things (like the crayon as I demo-ed) and measure the strip of paper with each item. How many each _ lengths is the red strip? Children explore and discover simple ways to measure. [HSCOF-3.3.4, 4.2.3] [GLCE- M.UN.00.01-.05] Sandra Page 919/929-0681

45 Kinesthetic  construct/build a vehicle using classroom materials  demonstrate how it goes; use vocab words to describe Oral  identify a vehicle and its parts as you tell a story  describe what makes it move and how it goes; use vocab Visual  draw a picture of a vehicle and label its parts  show how you made your vehicle and how it goes by making a poster Auditory  identify a vehicle through the sound that it makes using sound effects tape; use vocab  use a sound or song with a vehicle to show how it moves and goes Primary Transportation by learning modality continued Sandra Page 919/929-0681

46 Using Learning Modalities in Reading Practice with Sight Words Kinesthetic word puzzles (building sight words with form-fitting pieces) building words with magnetic letters, letter cards, Elkonin boxes clapping letters and/or rhymes of words Oral flashcard practice with partner saying/reading aloud sentence/book containing sight words singing song with sight words (Humpty Dumpty – Humpty Dumpty had to go, Humpty Dumpty then said ‘NO’! Visual use tree map to sort sight words by 2, 3, 4,etc. letters locate sight words within a text word wall activities (rhyming, riddles, etc.) cloze activity of placing sight words within a sentence Auditory read words with an emotion (in – scary voice, the – happy voice) echo reading of sight words or sentence using sight words listen to story with text present and sight words highlighted Sandra Page 919/929-0681

47 Window Forecasting

48 Learning Profile Science Activity Meteorologist: You are a meteorologist working for Channel 29 News. The show will “air” in 10 minutes with the weekend’s forecast, but all the equipment is failing. Look out your “windows” and use the clouds to predict the weather forecast for the local community. You can either write your script for the news show explaining your prediction and your reasons for the prediction, create a poster or prop for the news show that shows the audience what you think the weather will do and why, or role-play the part of the meteorologist and verbally present your forecast predictions to the audience. Cindy Strickland 08

49 Learner Cards Jamala Fisher 3 Front Rdg LevelSch.Affil +321 – 123-+ - Int Soccer Mysteries Video Games LPS/P Q/NELL V/A/K G/S A/P/C P/W Back Nanci Smith ‘03

50 Key Principles of Differentiated Instruction

51 Community Teacher-Student Connections Safe Environment Shared Partnership Curriculum Essential KUDs Engagement Teaching Up Instruction Addressing R, I, LP Flexible Grouping Multiple Strategies Flexible Management Assessment Pre-assessment On-going Assessment to Inform Instruction 3-P Grading DIFFERENTIATIONDIFFERENTIATION

52 Key Principle #1: All students participate in respectful work in a respectful environment. Respectful learning environment is:  Welcoming  Respectful of differences  Safe  Emphasis on growth  Success- oriented  Fair  Collaborative

53 Keys to Connecting with Kids (Tomlinson 2008) Start class with kid talk Go to student events Keep student data cards Share own interests Attend extracurricular activities Take notes during class Ask for student input

54 Keys to Connecting with Kids (Tomlinson 2008) Talk at the door Early interest assessments Small group instruction Dialogue journals Student conferences Use Socratic or student-led discussions Share your own stories Listen Seek varied perspectives

55 RECIPE OF ME! DATE DUE:_______________ You're a one-of-a-kind design made up of a unique blend of ingredients. For example you may be a mix of strength, eight hours of sleep, and determination combined with your size (long or short legs,etc.) your coloring (hair,eyes,etc.) and other characteristics to make a complete recipe of you. Think carefully about your personality, values, what makes you happy, what makes you special, favorite foods, hobbies, or any other characteristics that make up you. Use strong adjectives to describe you. Brainstorm first and write down you ideas. REQUIRED MATERIALS: Recipe or lined index card(s) (enough for your recipe) One small picture from home (These will be put in a class recipe book for the class, so pictures will not be returned. If you don't want to give away a photo, draw a self-portrait instead.) All of the above mounted on a 9"x12" piece of construction paper with a border drawn by hand or computer.

56 RECIPE OF ME! DATE DUE:_______________ DIRECTIONS: Using food recipe measurements, list the ingredients that make YOU at the top of the index card in recipe format. Then skip some lines and give directions on how to mix the ingredients together. Tell whether there is a cooking time and temperature. Give your recipe a name. EXTRA POINTS: If the name of your recipe uses alliteration (words beginning with the same letter), you will receive bonus points.

57 Pair & Share With your 3:00 o’clock partner answer the following questions…..

58 58 Ask Yourself about Your Classroom Community...  How do we begin and end our time together?  In what ways do students assume ownership of the classroom?  How do we understand and celebrate our similarities? Our differences?  How do I know that each student feels included in the community? What action do I take to ensure this?

59 Key Principle #2: High Quality Curriculum “We have to know where we want to end up before we start out – and plan to get there” Carol Ann Tomlinson

60 Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity About What Students Should … KNOW –Facts –Vocabulary –Definitions UNDERSTAND –Principles/ generalizations –Big ideas of the discipline BE ABLE TO DO –Processes –Skills

61 non-negotiables of differentiation Mindset on-going assessment (pre-assessment, formative, summative) flexible grouping respectful tasks readiness, interest, learning profile teaching up Know-Understand-Do (KUD) instructional strategies for differentiation Differentiation is a philosophy (more than a set of strategies) designed to maximize the capacity of each learner. Mindset shapes teaching and learning. Teacher connection with kids opens them up to the risk of learning. Community multiplies support for students & the teacher. On-going assessment guides quality differentiation. The quality of what we teach contributes to the impact of how we teach-- & vice versa. Clarity of learning goals (KUDs) engagement & understanding Differentiation professionalizes teachers. Reflect on your philosophy and practice. Analyze & critique differentiated tasks using key principles & vocabulary Define differentiation Determine next steps in implementing differentiation in your work

62 Know: Different Forms of Transportation Understand: Transportation/vehicles helps us move from here to there. Do: Students will describe a vehicle using the vocabulary and knowledge learned on what makes things move and go. Vocabulary: wings, wheels, pedal, sail, pull, push, float, sink air, water, land, space fast, slow Transportation Pre-K/Kindergarten using Learning Modality Preferences Sandra Page 919/929-0681

63 Please Complete the Task with the Color that Best Fits Your Role Specialists in special ed., reading, ELL Teachers who have taught low-end classes Teachers who have taught high end classes/clusters General ed. Teachers/prospective teachers, & administrators University faculty/administrators

64 RAFT: ROLEAUDIENCEFORMATTOPIC Discouraged Math Student TeacherNote Left on Her Desk Here’s why I can’t do math New TeacherA ColleagueTrue ConfessionWhen I see that low level class coming… A Smart KidHimselfDroodlesThis class is too hard… A Kid with David Letterman Genes Audience of other Kids Top Ten ListHow you can tell who the smart kids (or dumb kids) are in school ProfessorStudent TeachersChartWatch out for those subliminal messages about ability EQ: How do perceptions of ability affect teaching and learning?

65 Pair & Share With your 12:00 o’clock partner share your RAFT activity

66 R.A.F.T. Role Audience Format Topic


68 Sample RAFT Strips RoleAudienceFormatTopic Semicolon Middle SchoolDiary EntryI Wish You Really Understood Where I Belong N.Y. TimesPublicOp Ed pieceHow our Language Defines Who We Are Huck FinnTom SawyerNote hidden in a tree knot A Few Things You Should Know Rain DropFuture DropletsAdvice ColumnThe Beauty of Cycles LungOwnerOwner’s GuideTo Maximize Product Life Rain ForestJohn Q. CitizenPaste Up “Ransom” Note Before It’s Too Late ReporterPublicObituaryHitler is Dead Martin Luther KingTV audience of 2010SpeechThe Dream Revisited Thomas JeffersonCurrent Residents of Virginia Full page newspaper ad If I could Talk to You Now FractionsWhole numbersPetitionTo Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problemStudents in your class Set of directionsHow to Get to Know Me Language Arts Science History Math Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?, Billmeyer and Martin, 1998

69 Sample RAFT Strips RoleAudienceFormatTopic Gingerbread Man Our ClassOral ResponseI never should have listened to the fox SquantoOther Native Americans PictographsI can help the inept settlers Band MemberOther Band Members Demo TapeHere’s how it goes Positive NumbersNegative NumbersDating AdOpposites Attract Rational NumbersIrrational NumbersSongMust you go on forever? DecimalsFractionsPoemDon’t you get my point? PerimeterAreaDiary EntryHow your shape affects me MonetVan GoghLetterI wish you’d shed more light on the subject! Joan of ArcSelfSoliloquyTo recant, or not to recant; that is the question TreeUrban SprawlEditorialMy life is worth saving ThoreauPublic of his dayLetter to the Editor Why I moved to the pond Young ChromosomeExperienced Chromosome Children’s BookWhat becomes of us in mitosis? First GraderKindergartnerAdWhat’s best about 1 st grade?

70 Success comes from being smart Genetics, environment determine what we can do Some kids are smart—some aren’t Teachers can’t override students’ profiles Success comes from effort With hard work, most students can do most things Teachers can override students’ profiles A key role of the teacher is to set high goals, provide high support, ensure student focus—to find the thing that makes school work for a student

71 Creating common learning goals We have to know where we want all students to end up before we can think intelligently about how we want them to get there!

72 The teacher may vary the KNOWS & DOs with caution and based on evidence that a student needs to learn backwards as well as forward to catch up—or that a student needs to move ahead in order to keep learning. The UNDERSTANDS are the constant fulcrum on which effective differentiation pivots for all students.

73 New World Explorers KNOW Names of New World Explorers Key events of contribution UNDERSTAND Exploration involves –risk –costs and benefits –success and failure Do Use resource materials to illustrate & support ideas

74 New World Explorers Using a teacher-provided list of resources and list of product options, show how 2 key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, and brought about both positive and negative change. Provide proof/evidence. Using reliable and defensible research, develop a way to show how New World Explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit principles

75 An Assignment-Based Question Elementary What challenges does it (might it) present for you to create & teach w/ understandings on center stage? What benefits might occur for students who studied your curriculum organized by KUDS? Secondary Which do you feel is (will be) the greater challenge for you: teaching for engagement or teaching for understanding? What beliefs or attitudes might secondary teachers need to alter in order to teach for both engagement & understanding?

76 Key Principle #3: Commit to Ongoing Assessments “The teacher who emphasizes assessment to inform instruction understands that only by staying close to student progress can he or she guide students success”. Tomlinson, 2008

77 WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? Skills Concepts/Principles READINESS INTEREST LEARNING PROFILE Content Knowledge Current Interests Potential Interests Talents/Passions Areas of Strength and Weakness Learning Preferences Self Awareness

78 On-going Assessment: A Diagnostic Continuum Pre-assessment (Finding Out) Formative Assessment (Keeping Track & Checking-Up) Summative Assessment (Making sure) Feedback and Goal Setting Pre-test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Checklist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning Small group checkExit Cards Peer evaluationPortfolio Check 3-minute pauseQuiz ObservationJournal Entry Talk-aroundSelf-evaluation QuestioningWindshield Check Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonstration Portfolio Review Remember to check for prerequisite skills


80 MATH INVENTORY NAME DATE 1. How do you feel about math? 2. Do you think you are good in math? Why? 3. What are your best areas in math? 4. What are your weakest areas in math? 5. Do you think it is important to be good in math? Why? 6. What do you think are characteristics of students who are good in math? Why? 7. What do you do when you come to a math problem you can’t solve? 8. How do you use math outside of class? 9. What do you usually do after school when you get home? 10. Do you most like to do when you have free time? Why? 11. What else should I know about you to teach you effectively this year?

81 Jo Gusman (2005), Practical Strategies for Accelerating the Literacy Skills & Content Learning of Your English Language Learners. New Horizons

82 At My Best… Thinking about your strengths and best features, please answer the following: 1. A positive thing people say about me is: 2.When I’m feeling great at school, it’s probably because: 3.A dream I have for myself is: 4.A thing I like spending time on is: 5.Something that captures my imagination is: 6.The best thing about my family is: 7.My strength as a learner is: 8.What I can contribute to the classroom is: 9.A thing I wish people knew about me is: 10.I’m proud of:

83 Strength-Based Assessments Typical Assessment Info. Average IQ Average reading achievement Above average math computation Missed 10 days of school this quarter 2 in-school suspensions this quarter Strength-Based Assessment Likes mechanical things Reads magazines about motorcycles Wants to learn more about computers Seen as a big brother to neighborhood kids Wants to travel some day Likes to talk about ideas Based on idea from Sousa & Bender (2008). How the Brain Influences Behavior: Management Strategies for Every Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.


85 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about ________. Write as much as you can. Definition Information ExamplesNon- Examples Fractions Useful for pre-assessment & formative assessment of readiness in many grades & subjects

86 Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Jazz. Write as much as you can. DefinitionInformation Performers/ Composers Jazz Personal Experience

87 EXIT CARDS On your exit card--- Explain the difference between simile and metaphor. Give some examples of each as part of your explanation. on-going assessment of readiness

88 EXIT CARDS - Learning Preferences We used the following learning strategies in this lesson: 3 minute pause T-P-S Visualizing What learning strategy or strategies seemed to work best for you? Why? on-going assessment of learning profile

89 3-2-1 Card Name: 3 things I learned from the friction lab… 2 questions I still have about friction… 1 thing way I see friction working in the world around me…. on-going assessment of readiness

90 1-2-3 Summarizer After reading over my rough draft--- 1 thing I really like about my first draft 2 resources I can use to help improve my draft. 3 revisions I can make to improve my draft. on-going assessment of to help student self-awareness and planning

91 An Example of Pre-assessing Student Readiness in a Primary Classroom












103 High School Unit on The Agricultural Revolution Major Emphasis to Lay Groundwork for Rest of Year Reading, Lecture, Videos, Journal Entries, Homework, etc. Three Weeks into the Unit… “So…what’s agriculture?”

104 “Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student holds as ‘given’ or ‘known’ and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.” Assessment as Learning: Using Classroom Assessment to Maximize Student Learning Lorna M. Earl Corwin Press, Inc. – 2003 – pp. 86-87

105 It’s about guiding students, not judging them. It’s about informing instruction, not filling grade books. It’s about before, during, & after—not just after. It’s about teaching for success—not gotcha teaching.

106 Work with a group of 3 to develop three ways to express the role of assessment in differentiation. You may work collaboratively or in parallel fashion to develop your 3 expressions. Please be ready to share your 3 expressions with another group. Heterogeneous Learning Profile Group

107 Defensible Differentiation: Teaches Up Always Waters down Never

108 Key Principle #4: Flexible Grouping Flexible grouping ensures that all students learn to work independently, cooperatively and collaboratively in a variety of settings and working with a variety of peers. Increases chance that learning activities will match more student’s needs more of the time, leading to faster, better, deeper learning…without tracking.

109 TeachingTimeMaterials & Tasks GroupsSpace Provide notes for students who struggle with taking them Allow students to move ahead in texts & with skills Provide reading & web material at different levels Meet with students in small groups to re-teach or extend Provide space for peer collaboration Stop often for student sharing and questions Provide 2 nd opportunities for mastery Use contracts, tiering, mini- workshops, etc. Use heterogeneous review groups Use cue walls, help boards, word walls Use past student work as models Allow drafts to be turned in early for teacher review Use computer programs for review & extension Use homogeneous work groups (esp. for adv. learners) Provide space for learning &/or enrichment centers To Address Readiness

110 TeachingTimeMaterials & Tasks GroupsSpace Attach key understandings to student interests Use some time in each unit for relevance Use interest- based materials Use interest- alike groups Devote some space in the room to student inquiry Share your interests & how key ideas & skills relate to them Make time for student- generated inquiry (e.g. Orbitals) Focus RAFTs journal prompts, perf. tasks, etc. on interests Use student expert-groups Make space available for student collaboration Invite students to co-teach on interests Conclude lessons with “so what” time Use biography & autobiography Use Jigsaw groups Use interest centers or boards To Address Interests

111 TeachingTimeMaterials & Tasks GroupsSpace Present in multiple modes (visual, auditory, demonstration) Provide time to work alone and time to work with peers Use Analytical, Creative, & Practical Applications Use Complex Instruction groups Have quiet space available Give students advance signals/cues to prompt thinking Honor student pace of working when possible Provide both competition & collaboration Use similar & mixed learning profile groups as part of flexible grouping Ensure places to work without visual distractions Use examples related to both genders & many cultures Honor cultural perspectives on time Help students use auditory vs. visual preferences Use synthesis groups to express ideas in varied modes Use an “independent study area” To Address Learning Profile

112 …to ensure that you connect essential content… …with each student in your class? Talk with someone whose role is similar to yours.

113 Flexible Grouping Bluebirds Buzzards Wombats

114 Intentional teacher movement of students within a relatively short period of time among a variety of contexts related to student readiness, interests, & learning preferences with the intent to “audition” students in varied settings, allowing both students and teacher to see other students and themselves through fresh eyes.


116 Flexible Grouping Options By Readiness, Interest, and Learning Profile By Group or Make up (student similarities, size, variance) By Teacher Choice, Student Choice, or at Random

117 Classroom Instructional Arrangements Whole Class Activities Small Group Activities (pairs, triads; quads) Whole Class Activities Individualized Activities Student – Teacher Conferences Pre-assessment Readiness/interest Introducing Planning Sharing Wrap-up of Explorations Sense-Making Teaching Skills Directed Reading Planning Investigation Compacting Sense-Making Practice & Apply Skills Homework Interest Centers Products Independent Study Testing Assessment Tailoring & Planning Guiding Evaluation Troubleshooting Discussing

118 Evaluating your Experience

119 Below is a link to ASCD’s online Professional Development Feedback Survey. We encourage all participants to complete the online evaluation within the next ten (10) days. All responses will be anonymously reported to ASCD. building.htm Thank you for taking the time to honestly evaluate the program. The results we receive help us to improve the quality of services you receive

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