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+ Coaching for Curriculum Differentiation Presented by Penny Willoughby To Cranbourne Secondary College Teaching Coaches, Wednesday 8 th December 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Coaching for Curriculum Differentiation Presented by Penny Willoughby To Cranbourne Secondary College Teaching Coaches, Wednesday 8 th December 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Coaching for Curriculum Differentiation Presented by Penny Willoughby To Cranbourne Secondary College Teaching Coaches, Wednesday 8 th December 2010 Presentation Copyright © 2010 Penny Willoughby

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4 + Outline PART I: Understanding Differentiation 1. What is the rationale behind differentiation? 2. What does it look like when differentiation isn’t happening? 3. Examples of effective differentiation 4. How do you implement differentiation? PART II: Putting it into practice 1. Begin with the end in mind 2. Options for today 3. Have a go 4. Discussion PART III: Plan to coach teachers 1. Goal 2. What do the coaches need? 3. About the coachees, types 4. Common misunderstandings 5. Inhibitors 6. Factors that support teacher change 7. Focusing on differentiation 8. Assessing needs and improvement 9. Time to plan and prepare 4 90 mins 2 hours 90 mins

5 + About Penny Who is Penny? Background in business UTS Bachelor of Education, 1 st Class Honours Interest in thinking development, individualised learning & special needs Gifted Education and differentiation 5 Thinking Outside The Box Professional Development provides uniquely engaging programs for educators o Founder and teacher of Thinking Outside The Box Programs o Vice President, Victorian Association for Gifted and Talented Children (VAGTC) o Classroom teacher, tutor and teacher of gifted students o Professional developer of educators thinkingoutsidethebox.com.au nb: The endorsement of Thinking Outside The Box Professional Development by Mr John Travolta should not be inferred. He clearly likes Penny though…

6 + Part I Understanding Differentiation 6

7 + Huge range of options Teacher roams to provide individual instruction Encourages us to work at our own level Standard practice - not a special occurrence Naturally we each work at our own pace and level because we all have such different needs This example shows some aspects of differentiation at work. Students’ individual learning needs are being met on a regular basis. 7 Introduction Pilates

8 + Providing different or modified activities for students based on their ability, knowledge, skills, interests, readiness and learning styles with the goal of enabling real learning for all. (Adapted from Winebrenner, 2001) 8 Introduction Definition of ‘Differentiation’

9 + What is the rationale? Opportunities to struggle and succeed (Windsurfing story) “The surest path to high self-esteem is to be successful at something you perceived would be difficult. Each time we steal our students’ struggle by insisting they do work that is too easy for them, we steal their opportunity to have an esteem-building experience. Unless kids are consistently engaged in challenging work, they will lose their motivation to work hard.”  Dr Sylvia Rimm Replace ‘too easy’ with ‘too hard’ and ‘challenging work’ with ‘work at a suitable level’. “Psychologists and teachers agree that the best learning happens when a student’s level of understanding matches the challenge of new material.” (Gifted Children in the Classroom. Accor Services, North America, 2004) 9

10 + What is the rationale? Comparison between bottom and top 15% of students (Based on Winebrenner, 2001) Group 3Top 15% of students Group 2Mid-range group of students Group 1Bottom 15% of students 10

11 + What is the rationale? Group 1 – Below average Traditional classrooms often planned content, pace, repetition and level based on Group 2 (average). The students in Group 1 (low-ability) have different learning needs. Teachers need to include variations for these students or they will just get further behind. Example: Alex* – well below average but no additional funding or assistance, hard working, high level of home support, needs lots of repetition and individual assistance, limited ability to understand concepts but with help can develop this. * All names have been changed. 11

12 + What is the rationale? Group 3 - Gifted The planned curriculum is just as unsuitable for Group 3. Many of these students also have different learning needs. Example: Clark* – top 2% in Mathematics, top 10% in English, learns Maths concepts at lightning pace, little repetition needed, highly emotional and perceptual, becomes highly anxious when not being challenged or learning new concepts. Both groups 1 & 3 are entitled to differentiation because they are not average. * All names have been changed. But what about Group 2 (average)? 12

13 + What is the rationale? Group 2 – ‘Average’ Brent – below average, struggles with many concepts, rote learning and speed Maths, needs lots of repetition, becomes extremely anxious during timed or test situations, interest in structures and machines Cynthia – suspected above average, avoids any kind of reading, possibly dyslexic, strong spatial and organisational skills, interpersonal, low motivation and self-esteem in academic areas Michelle – average, hard worker, high ability in sports, can’t keep up with the Maths and sees herself as poor in this subject James – well above average, difficult background, other priorities, needs to be acknowledged and managed, gets concepts quickly when focused Jarrod – below average, sporty, active, low academic interest Lauren – above average, creative, arty, shy, follower, compliant, finds work easy 13 Note: All names have been changed.

14 + Become discouraged, disengaged and lose motivation Float through school without putting in much effort or learning how to extend themselves or persevere Decide that there’s not much use to putting in effort or being clever at school Avoid taking learning risks Tune out, become day- dreamers, withdraw into their own world as a release from frustration or boredom Be too polite to tell the teacher the work’s too easy/hard and may be overlooked or identified as ‘backward’ Sabotage their learning (consciously or unconsciously) What is the rationale? Other effects on students 14

15 + Resist the teacher’s attempts to make them do the ‘easy’ work and enter a power-struggle with the teacher (Winebrenner, 2001) Respond to their frustration by becoming disruptive and uncooperative, eventually being labelled as ‘behaviour problems’ Dumb down, try to be like everyone else Pretend to know more, copy from others and use other strategies to hide their weaknesses Cry, become depressed about or refuse to attend school Never reach their potential What is the rationale? Other effects on students 15

16 + 16 When differentiation isn’t happening Spot the difference

17 + What’s wrong with this picture? (Topic: Ancient Rome) Reading the textbook in class Taking notes of important details Answer the questions at the end of the chapter (Homework if not completed) Take notes of his carefully prepared lectures Quiz on the notes and text (prior study sheet clearly spelling out what will be in the test) 17 When differentiation isn’t happening Example no. 1 – Mr Appleton

18 + Mr Appleton demonstrates a clear purpose but: How will reading the text benefit the students who already know a lot about the topic or who are weak at reading / comprehension? Taking notes may be impractical for some and for others may build knowledge but not understanding or depth. What benefit will students get from answering the questions? Gifted students probably ‘got it’ the first time (or may know more) and low ability students may just just use ‘tricks’ to work out answers. These activities are unlikely to promote in-depth understanding. The low ability students will probably be lost and the high ability students will probably coast. 18

19 + When differentiation isn’t happening Using the same approach 19

20 + When differentiation isn’t happening Example no. 2 – Mrs Baker What’s wrong with this picture? (Topic: Ancient Rome) Graphic organizers for taking notes Pictures to show influence on modern art and architecture Invites student to dress in togas and agrees to student suggestion to have a food banquet Word search puzzle of Roman specific vocabulary Watch and talk about entertainment such as gladiators Plus … 20

21 + When differentiation isn’t happening Example no. 2– Mrs Baker 10 projects with options such as: Listing important gods, their symbols and roles Travel brochure Poem about life Dressing dolls like citizens Drawing the fashions Building a model of a structure Map of the Holy Roman Empire Own topic 21

22 + When differentiation isn’t happening Example no. 2 – Mrs Baker Mrs Baker’s structure offers choice and may engage some students. However there are some problems: Direction and learning goals are unclear Lacks meaningful long-term learning Ideas and information have no cohesion 22 Different does not equate to differentiation Differentiation must be based on defensible pedagogy

23 + When differentiation isn’t happening Other examples Sudoku 23

24 + Students work on tasks at which they are already competent Mixed ability groups where the higher ability students take notes, assist others, do the difficult jobs, etc. (eg. Do the reading or doing the hard maths) and the lower ability students rely on others Peer tutoring Students are given more of the same if they finish early or have to take unfinished work home to complete Targeting high ability students’ weaknesses (eg. Animal School, Dr G.H.Reavis) Most lessons are based on the same learning styles and intelligence types The goals for a lesson/unit are the same for everyone 24 When differentiation isn’t happening Other examples

25 + Reminder: Outline PART I: Understanding Differentiation 1. What is the rationale behind differentiation? 2. What does it look like when differentiation isn’t happening? 3. Examples of effective differentiation 4. How do you implement differentiation? PART II: Putting it into practice 1. Begin with the end in mind 2. Options for today 3. Have a go 4. Discussion PART III: Plan to coach teachers 1. Goal 2. What do the coaches need? 3. About the coachees, types 4. Common misunderstandings 5. Inhibitors 6. Factors that support teacher change 7. Focusing on differentiation 8. Assessing needs and improvement 9. Time to plan and prepare mins 2 hours 90 mins

26 + 26 The good news or the bad news?

27 + Bad new: Any good teaching takes effort and time Good news: It is possible! Strategies, tools and systems to make it easier Reusable resources and ideas 27 The good news or the bad news?

28 + Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 1 – Ms Cassell – 2 Differentiated Tasks Topic: Ancient Rome Task 1 Create a data sheet about a chosen role (eg. soldier, healer, farmer, slave) by using a wide range of resources to understand what their life would have been like if they lived in ancient Rome Accurate, interesting and detailed information about what they would eat, wear, where they would live, how they’d be treated by the law, problems they would face, etc. Group and individual work, building understanding and research skills 28

29 + Task 2 Compare and contrast own lives with the lives of children of similar age in ancient times Teacher assigns scenarios. eg. Eldest son of lawmaker during the Pax Romana period Differentiation based on student readiness, interests and abilities – varying complexity of scenario Final in-depth question; Eg: How is what you eat shaped by the economics of your family and location? How is your life interdependent with others? Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 1 – Ms Cassell – 2 Differentiated Tasks 29

30 + Why this picture works: Engages the students Systematically builds / organises understanding and depth of thinking Is rigorous – requires understanding of important concepts (in this case: culture, change and interdependence) Builds skills based on students’ abilities Continual assessment and modification based on readiness, interests and learning profiles Involves students in goal-setting and decision-making about their learning Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 1 – Ms Cassell – 2 Differentiated Tasks 30

31 + Description of unit: 4 week maths unit focusing on the concept of change. Primary purpose is to examine ways change is represented both graphically and linearly. Includes assessable topics of variable change, linear graphing, regression lines, slope and linear equations. Centre piece is an ongoing, independent project in which students apply their growing knowledge. Students are immersed in skills of interpreting and creating graphic representations of data. Assumes pre-assessment of learning styles and readiness. Includes requirements that all students must meet as well as modifications and differentiation for specific students or groups. 31 Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 2 – Line ‘Em Up! (Algebra) Nanci Smith Summarised from Differentiation in Practice, Grades 5-9, Carol Ann Tomlinson & Caroline Cunningham Eidson, 2003.

32 + Differentiated elements: Small group activities based on learning profiles* or readiness. (*Multiple and triarchic intelligences) Independent projects differentiated based on readiness and interest. Adjustment to tasks and review of progress based on needs. Heterogeneous grouping based on interests and matching topics etc. Quiz on concepts and formulas based on readiness. Discussion questions for groups based on readiness. Note-taking sheets distributed to some students based on readiness. ‘Learning station’ assignments based on student skills. Assessment portions based on readiness. 32 Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 2 – Line ‘Em Up! Nanci Smith

33 + Why this works: Satisfies the ‘rigor test’ – the unit has been systematically developed to meet all the important criteria. Focus on understanding while including assessable learning. Students required to apply understanding of every subtopic. Assessment includes basic elements as well as some individualised components designed to encourage growth. Goals negotiated with each student. Class develops final scoring guide. Caters for different learning styles. Uses a range of instructional strategies. 33 Examples of effective differentiation Example no. 2 – Line ‘Em Up! Nanci Smith

34 + Reminder: Outline PART I: Understanding Differentiation 1. What is the rationale behind differentiation? 2. What does it look like when differentiation isn’t happening? 3. Examples of effective differentiation 4. How do you implement differentiation? PART II: Putting it into practice 1. Begin with the end in mind 2. Options for today 3. Have a go 4. Discussion PART III: Plan to coach teachers 1. Goal 2. What do the coaches need? 3. About the coachees, types 4. Common misunderstandings 5. Inhibitors 6. Factors that support teacher change 7. Focusing on differentiation 8. Assessing needs and improvement 9. Time to plan and prepare mins 2 hours 90 mins

35 + Complexity and abstraction Small V big ideas, connections between ideas and history Imaginary V real issues Facts V values and ethical dilemmas Pre-testing and variation of complexity of subject matter, resources and presentation methods, etc. Interests and passions Level of built in metacognition 35 (Loosely based on Maker, Tomlinson & Van Tassel-Baska) How to implement differentiation 4 Ways to differentiate - Content

36 + Four ways to differentiate - Process Open-endedness with multiple possible answers Discovery Choice Varied pace More V less basic practice Amount of time to delve, use higher order thinking and discuss Personal learning styles and group or independent study Competitions V Personal Best Creativity V structure, routine, steps Steps V critical thinking, rationales and justification Self-expression (eg. arts or drama) 36 (Loosely based on Maker, Tomlinson & Van Tassel-Baska) How to implement differentiation 4 Ways to differentiate - Process

37 + Four ways to differentiate - Product Choice of presentation style Creativity and originality Application V synthesis in new form Audience – real V classroom or small group Participate in competition or produce an independent piece Preliminary time to build solid knowledge-base V producing product Solutions to simple V complex or real issues Being of service to others Intangible products such as attitudes, values, self-esteem and self-understanding 37 (Loosely based on Maker, Tomlinson & Van Tassel-Baska) How to implement differentiation 4 Ways to differentiate - Product

38 + Evaluating Creating Analysis Application Understanding Knowledge 38 Higher order thinking Lower order thinking How to implement differentiation 4 Ways to differentiate – Product - Boom’s Taxonomy

39 + Four ways to differentiate - Environment Variation of flexibility, mobility, creativity, risk taking, challenge and student initiative Level of use and involvement of community Instruction - virtual V personal Teacher as facilitator V controller or dispenser of knowledge Focus on thinking and ideas by the student V teacher Level of new input expected Level of self-direction and evaluation of learning Evaluation V judgment Varied grouping - like-minded V multi-ability 39 (Loosely based on Maker, Tomlinson & Van Tassel-Baska) How to implement differentiation 4 Ways to differentiate – Environment

40 + Know Your Kids Principle™ A planning system that is time-friendly, adaptable, systematic and uses existing knowledge: 1. Review what you know about your kids: Level of ability, current skills and knowledge Learning styles - Multiple Intelligences Interests (Learner’s Questionnaire), special needs and observations 2. Identify areas of potential in which there is underachievement 3. Develop strategies and plans for differentiation 4. Translate into unit/lesson plans and Differentiated Learning Plans 40 (Developed by Penny Willoughby, Thinking Outside the Box Programs) How to implement differentiation Know Your Kids Principle TM

41 + 41 How to implement differentiation Know Your Kids Principle TM – Class Information Chart

42 + Main features: Requires more than remembering facts or reproducing skills Students learn by answering – and teachers learn about each student from the attempt Several possible answers From: Peter Sullivan, and Pat Lilburn, “Open-ended Maths Activities - Using ‘good’ questions to enhance learning.” Oxford University Press, 1997, South Melbourne, Australia. How to implement differentiation Open-ended Questions 42

43 + Good open-ended questions are likely to require higher levels of thinking. (Bloom’s: analysis, creation or evaluation) eg. Make conjectures, follow arguments or comment on results Will still require some lower-order thinking such as knowledge, understanding and application How you teach open-ended questions will affect how valuable they are How to implement differentiation Open-ended Questions 43

44 Calculate the perimeter and area of a yard What is the average of 6, 7,5, 8 & 4? What is a square? How long is the basketball court? 4, what could the question be? I want to make a rectangular garden using 30 metres of fence. What might the area of the garden be? Paul’s average score is his tests is 6. What might his scores have been? How many ways could you describe this square? Maria and John each measured the length of the basketball court and found it to be 20 and 19 ½ rulers long respectively. How could this happen? Not open-endedOpen-ended How to implement differentiation Open-ended Questions 44

45 + How to use metaphors in teaching: 1. Clarify the key concepts and important aspects of the topic that you wish the students to understand. eg: The structure of a cell 2. Decide on a metaphor that encapsulates these. eg: A city with a centre, boundaries, inhabitants, visitors, invaders. 3. Set a project or task that is based on the metaphor; This will become like a virtual reality the students ‘step into’. eg: Build a model of a city including all its key components * From Christine Ireland, Teacher and President, VAGTC How to implement differentiation Enlist Metaphors – No. 1 of 3 45

46 + How to use metaphors in teaching: 4. Set questions that will require the students to make connections between the metaphor and the topic. eg: In what ways is a city like a cell? 5. Ask ‘What if?’ questions that give the students ‘power’ to change the rules and cause a deeper understanding of the key concepts. eg: What if disguised invaders (virus) broke into the city (cell)? How could the invasion have been prevented? * From Christine Ireland, Teacher and President, VAGTC How to implement differentiation Enlist Metaphors – No. 2 of 3 46

47 + Examples of using metaphors in teaching Macbeth – A boardroom takeover Punctuation or spelling – Fashion, looking sharp, going on a date Maths process – A train in motion; What if the train derails? A set of scales that must be balanced as a metaphor for algebra. Use cross disciplines. eg. Use a scientific metaphor to teach language. How to implement differentiation Enlist Metaphors – No. 3 of 3 47

48 + What is the rationale? 48 How to implement differentiation Catering for students below and above average Modify/delete sections of class work, homework and tests beyond capability, set extra homework to be supported by parents, include lots of repetition, invite to tutorials to build understanding, focus on achievements Alex Accelerate at higher level Maths, set minimal/no repetition, assess regularly, group with like-minded students, include extra challenges and higher level thinking for all tasks, include emotional management goals in DLP, set up daily metacognitive reflection and feedback Clark

49 + What is the rationale? 49 How to implement differentiation Catering for our ‘average’ kids Provide acknowledgement and clear guidelines, joint goal setting with rewards and consequences James Provide regular active options or breaks, alternatives activities based on interests Jarrod Set DLP with goals, learning contract, individual project, focus on independence and confidence Lauren

50 + What is the rationale? 50 How to implement differentiation Catering for our ‘average’ kids Personal best, alternative method to time trials, opportunity for small tutorials, build in interests Brent Different texts, match with better reader, interest based options and opportunities to organise Cynthia Provide optional extra homework and tutorials for Michelle to ask questions and practice processes Michelle

51 + Part II Putting it into practice 51

52 + Outline for Part II 1. What would you like to achieve? 2. Options for today 3. Time to put it into practice – First option 4. Discussion 5. Time to put it into practice – Second option 6. Summing up mins 20 mins 35 mins 10 mins 15 mins 5 mins

53 + Begin with the end in mind Think of a student, group, class or topic you would like to differentiate better. What would you like to get out of this workshop for this student/group? Objectives for this segment: Give some further thought to differentiation possibilities Have a go at planning for differentiation Take away some ideas and something that you can use 53

54 + Options for today 1. Work on a lesson, student group, topic or unit that you would like to differentiate 2. Apply one or more approach to the lesson, unit or group: Use the Know Your Kids Principle ™ Develop some open-ended questions * Develop a metaphor for a topic * Use the Four Ways To Differentiate checklist and adjust features Use Blooms or Williams Taxonomy to differentiate activities for different groups Make notes for DLPs for students for whom you’d like to differentiate Other 3. Indication of which approach everyone is planning to tackle 4. Match up groups and get started * Groups recommended 54

55 + Discussion What have you done? What are your thoughts so far? What did you like? What worked well? What difficulties did you have? 55

56 + Part III Planning to coach teachers 56

57 + Goals What do the coaches need? About the coachees, types Common misunderstandings Inhibitors for teacher change Factors that support teacher change Focusing on differentiation Assessing needs and improvement Time to plan and prepare 57 Coaching for differentiation

58 + Deep learning and altered habits What else? 58 Coaching for differentiation Goals

59 + What do you need to become good coaches of differentiated teaching? Coaching skills and processes Deep understanding Passion and conviction for differentiation How important is it that you become the experts? Blooms: Knowledge, Understanding, Application, Analysis, Creation and Evaluation There are plenty of benefits for you as teachers too 59 Coaching for differentiation What do the coaches need?

60 + Who? What do they need? Readiness (Types of coachees – next slides) How to work with each person? Individualised processes and tasks - Differentiating differentiation! What do they need / want to achieve (Questionnaire?) Need to be challenged, not just supported Cooperative (Planning together, not just being told or following advice, coachee maintains locus of control) Reflective 60 Coaching for differentiation About the coachees

61 + Resisters – essentially refuse to participate, overtly or covert Resisters – Build relationship, analyse the context, assume multiple roles Accessorisers – deliver a balanced message, role of critical analyst, develop reflective practices, assume multiple roles Type of coacheeHow to help 61 Coaching for differentiation Types of Coachees - Metaphor of the Renovator Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D. Accessorisers – intermittent involvement, motivation is misplaced (placate, status), do the minimum, need to retain sense of confidence, may be respected professional, strong classroom management, often misunderstands differentiation and incorrectly believes they are differentiating

62 + Redecorators – target specific areas, incorporating strategies and practices that align with deeply held beliefs, strong classroom management, seasoned, not showy, believe they know better, some accurate interpretations, traditional Redecorators – assess belief system, appeal to logic, graduation incremental persuasion, ‘calculated shepherd’ Renovators – anticipate potential problems and help develop solutions, provide roadmap for anticipated challenges such as shaken confidence or the ambiguity of the journey Type of coacheeHow to help 62 Coaching for differentiation Types of Coachees - Metaphor of the Renovator Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D. Renovators – constantly attempting to implement improvements/innovation, motivated by responsibility to students and personal need for growth, understand that risk-taking, discomfort, and failure are part of growth, seek comprehensive understanding, strong command of content, pedagogy, and classroom management

63 + Differentiation is a set of strategies. Differentiation is group work. Differentiation is an entire teaching philosophy grounded in knowing students and responding to their needs. Differentiation employs thoughtful, purposeful flexible grouping. Sometimes students work alone, sometimes in pairs, sometimes as a whole class, and sometimes in small groups – depending upon demonstrated student need. MisunderstandingClarification 63 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

64 + “I already differentiate.” Differentiated lessons have to be creative, “cute,” and fun. While many teachers may use a strategy associated with differentiation or may differentiate reactively, few have fully, proactively differentiated classrooms– these classrooms develop and grow over time in response to student need. While engaging students is an important part of differentiation, it is more important that the lesson be grounded rich curriculum. MisunderstandingClarification 64 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

65 + Differentiation is just the next educational fad. Providing choice = differentiation. Because differentiation is a philosophy of meeting a broad range of students’ needs, only when students cease being different will the need for differentiation disappear. Different activities have to be held together by clear learning goals. MisunderstandingClarification 65 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

66 + Differentiation isn’t fair. Differentiation means “dumbing down” the curriculum for less advanced learners. Fair does not always mean “the same.” In order for students to reach the same goals, they may need to take different paths to get there. Differentiation means providing appropriate scaffolding to help all learners reach common learning goals. MisunderstandingClarification 66 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

67 + Differentiation only works when kids are well-behaved. Preparing a differentiated lesson takes a huge amount of time. Creating a responsive classroom can be a great way to improve student behavior, as students’ needs are being met. Creating any high-quality lesson takes time. As teachers get their heads wrapped around the process, they become more efficient and develop storehouses of differentiated lessons to adapt MisunderstandingClarification 67 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

68 + Kids will differentiate on their own. Open-ended tasks are naturally differentiated. Kids need help to work at a level that will foster true learning and when left alone may just ‘adapt’ work to something they already know To be differentiated even open-ended tasks need to be carefully designed to provide rich learning for all MisunderstandingClarification 68 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

69 + Differentiation requires 3 groups (High, Medium, Low). Administer assessment at the beginning of the year and use it all year. The number of variations to the core work will depend on the number of differences in the classroom. A class of 3 children could have only 3 levels. Assessment needs to be ongoing to inform the continual and individualised adjustments to learning activities. MisunderstandingClarification 69 Coaching for differentiation Common misunderstandings Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

70 + Too many initiatives undertaken Lack of support, no commitment to continue support Evaluation and accountability perceived as threatening High-stakes testing environments Unstable culture – not worth the risk to invest Top-down mandated change 70 Coaching for differentiation Inhibitors for teacher change Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

71 + Administrative support Safe climate where risk-taking is encouraged Culture of a learning organization Coaching support on-site Time for collaboration with colleagues Extended time for change Stable environment Voices represented, shared vision a result of teachers’ contributions 71 Coaching for differentiation Factors that support teacher change Adapted from Differentiating Differentiation: A Coaching Model, Catherine Brighton, Ph.D. Holly Hertberg-Davis, Ph.D.

72 + Realistic and achievable goals Demonstrating Observation by coach and coachee Debriefing Joint planning – with the coach or other like-minded staff Reflection – journal, with the coach, meetings with like-minded Evaluation and resetting goals Acknowledge the difficulties Celebrate the successes! 72 Coaching for differentiation Focusing on differentiation

73 + Real and significant rather than trivial or secondary Before and ongoing Current skill level – how effectively does the coachee differentiate? Use: * Observation Questionnaires - teacher, coach and students Checklists Before and after Decide at start how to assess and ensure the goals are assessable Link to performance reviews Link to real and meaningful goals New skill level - how effective? (*See list on left) NeedsImprovement 73 Coaching for differentiation Assessing needs and improvement

74 + Time to plan and prepare 74 Coaching for differentiation Time to plan and prepare

75 + PART I: Understanding Differentiation 1. What is the rationale behind differentiation? 2. What does it look like when differentiation isn’t happening? 3. Examples of effective differentiation 4. How do you implement differentiation? PART II: Putting it into practice 1. Begin with the end in mind 2. Options for today 3. Have a go 4. Discussion PART III: Plan to coach teachers 1. Goal 2. What do the coaches need? 3. About the coachees, types 4. Common misunderstandings 5. Inhibitors 6. Factors that support teacher change 7. Focusing on differentiation 8. Assessing needs and improvement 9. Time to plan and prepare 75 Summing Up

76 + Penny Willoughby Thinking Outside The Box Professional Development (03) thinkingoutsidethebox.com.au


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