Presentation on theme: "POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT IN THE CLASSROOM CCS Professional Development Institute 2013-2014."— Presentation transcript:
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT IN THE CLASSROOM CCS Professional Development Institute
Why are we doing this ? PBIS in the Classroom
FERTILE GROUND: CREATING THE CONTEXT FOR SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF PBIS Kent McIntosh University of Oregon APBS Conference, March 2013
IES: NCSER (R324A120278) OSEP: TA Center on PBS (H326S03002) Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada (SRG F ) Hampton Endowment Fund (J ) Support for these projects:
Participants in these studies State Networks Jerry Bloom, Susan Barrett and PBIS Maryland Cristy Clouse, Barbara Kelley and CalTAC Eric Kloos, Ellen Nacik, Char Ryan and Minnesota DOE Mike Lombardo, Rainbow Crane and Placer COE Lori Lynass, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Chris Borgmeier, Tricia Robles and NWPBIS Mary Miller-Richter, Nanci Johnson and MO SW-PBS Justyn Poulos, Wisconsin PBIS Heather Reynolds, NC DOE Co-authors Thanks and Acknowledgments
Focus on bringing PBIS into the classroom Consistency with SW systems High rates of acknowledgment for prosocial behavior Focus on quality differentiated instruction across academic domains Student instruction at their level Lessons learned for sustaining School- wide PBIS Research from our state
Objective Participants will create a classroom plan based on Positive Behavior Intervention and Support philosophies.
Today’s Agenda PBIS Overview Routines and Procedures Defining Classroom Expectations Teaching Expectations Encouraging Positive Behavior Collaborative Work and Next Steps
Participant Expectations Be Responsible Return promptly from breaks Be an active participant Use electronic devices appropriately Be Respectful Maintain cell phone etiquette Listen attentively to others Limit sidebars and stay on topic Be Kind Enter discussions with an open mind Respond appropriately to others’ ideas Honor confidentiality
Attention Signal Please make note of time limits and watch your clocks! Trainer will raise his/her hand. Finish your thought/comment. Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.
WHAT IS PBIS?
Positive Behavior Intervention and Support: Definition A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students - Rob Horner, Ph.D. Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support
Guiding Principles All students are valuable and deserve respect. All students can be taught to demonstrate appropriate behavior. Punishment does not work to change behavior. School climate is a shared responsibility among administrators, teachers, staff, students and families.
Guiding Principles School personnel must be willing to examine their own behavior as students are taught to change theirs. Cultural differences exist and need to be understood. Positive relationships between students and adults are key to student success.
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Supporting Social Competence and Academic Achievement
Defining & Teaching Expectations Routines & Procedures Reinforcement Systems Effective Consequences CONTINUUM OF POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND SUPPORT Social Skills Mentoring Check In Self Management Classroom Based Intervention FBA/BIP De-escalation 5% 80% 15%
Traditional Discipline vs. PBIS Traditional Discipline Focuses on the student’s problem behavior Goal is to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishment Primarily reactive Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Replaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skill PBIS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behavior Primarily proactive
PBIS IN THE CLASSROOM Management
What is Effective Classroom Management? Classroom management refers to all of the things that an educator does to organize students, space, time, and materials, so that instruction in content and student learning can take place.
Classroom Management Plan At the end of each section, you will be asked to apply learning to your own classroom management plan. Use the classroom management plan template to guide you. Your overall plan should include: Routines and procedures Classroom expectations Methods for teaching expectations Procedures for encouraging positive behavior Procedures for responding to problem behavior
PBIS IN THE CLASSROOM Routines and Procedures
Routines and Procedures: Definition Routines are a habitual performance of an established procedure. Procedures are a series of steps followed in a regular definite order. 1.Talk with your neighbor. Share one routine you completed today. What steps were involved? 2.Pick one lucky spokesman to share out on one routine. 1.Talk with your neighbor. Share one routine you completed today. What steps were involved? 2.Pick one lucky spokesman to share out on one routine.
Routines and Procedures: Physical Space The physical environment can hinder or promote successful behavior. Maximize positive behavior: Arrange seats in a way that allows easy access to all students Utilize seating arrangements that match the level of structure students need Ensure areas with high traffic have ample room for students to give each other space Include a quiet area for students to take a break when needed
“Tried and true” practices
Routines and Procedures: Schedule A daily or class period schedule increases predictability and reduces transition time. Schedules: Meet student needs as much as possible (i.e. length of activity & student attention span) Are flexible, but not loose Posted in areas visible to entire room (add pictures as needed) Have a balance of various types of instruction
Routines and Procedures: Attention Signal An attention signal is a visual or verbal cue used to gain the attention of students so that learning and teaching take place. All teachers, regardless of student age, should use an attention signal. Effective attention signals: Used across all settings Students can respond quickly Taught and practiced regularly Ideas: Give me 5. Hand up (must teach) Auditory (think about field trip and outside) Rhythmic clapping Ideas: Give me 5. Hand up (must teach) Auditory (think about field trip and outside) Rhythmic clapping
Routines and Procedures: Attention Signal Process Attention signal practice: Make sure students are attending before moving on. Be willing to wait. Reinforce students who attend immediately. Provide specific verbal praise when students comply. Be consistent. Remain calm. (For students who continue to be non-compliant after initial learning period, let them know they will owe you back the time it takes out of the lesson- “time owed”. Time owed: Student completes work or tasks missed due to misbehavior on their own time.)
Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines The beginning of the day is an important time to have efficient routines. Entrance routines set the tone for the entire class. Students need to feel welcome and immediately start a productive task. Greet students daily- “good morning”, high five, thumbs up (Can use to prevent future problems) Greet students daily- “good morning”, high five, thumbs up (Can use to prevent future problems)
Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines Opening classroom procedures to teach: Entering class and getting started Arriving after instruction has started Handing in work Obtaining needed materials Returning after an absence No right or wrong way. Just need to have a plan & explicitly teach it. No right or wrong way. Just need to have a plan & explicitly teach it.
Routines and Procedures: During Class Routines Because content and instructional methods change, a variety of routines are needed throughout the day or class period. Classroom procedures to teach: Getting assignments and turning in work Managing independent work times Managing cooperative work times Getting assistance Transitioning Teach and practice until demonstrated without much prompting.
Routines and Procedures: Ending Routines Ending class in a calm and predictable manner can facilitate a better start to the next day or class. Teach students how to clean up, organize materials and prepare for the next transition. Methods for giving and receiving feedback about the class should also be included. Ideas: Increase student monitoring by building in self-evaluation: thumbs up or down and reflect on improvements for tomorrow. Exit ticket with three or fewer questions Ideas: Increase student monitoring by building in self-evaluation: thumbs up or down and reflect on improvements for tomorrow. Exit ticket with three or fewer questions
Routines and Procedures: Summary Routines and procedures should be taught and practiced with students. Physical space and schedule can be manipulated to maximize positive behavior. An attention signal is a useful tool for all teachers. Have and teach specific routines for the beginning, middle and end of the day or class.
Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Select one key routine that you plan to teach your students. Develop steps to teach that routine and complete Section 1 of the Classroom PBIS Plan. Continue work on Section 1 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.
PBIS IN THE CLASSROOM Developing and Teaching Expectations
Classroom Expectations In order for positive behavior to be demonstrated, there must be clear expectations. Students need to know what is expected of them and how to meet those expectations. Classroom expectations must be related to school- wide expectations, but can be modified to be specific to your class.
Developing Expectations Expectations should be created with input from stakeholders. Base expectations on common classroom problems. State the expectations in the positive, using specific and observable terms. Develop expectations for different types of instruction.
Teaching Expectations Behavioral expectations must be overtly taught and practiced. Same as academic! Establish methods for teaching expected behaviors that meet learning needs. …Video, role play, visuals Teach regularly throughout the year, especially when students… transition in or out of school. return from breaks. demonstrate they have not mastered the expectations.
Teaching Expectations Conceptual Level Broad idea (respect, responsible, safe) Start here: Focus on concept 1 st Skill Level Specific to setting Taught in setting (when possible) Practice in the actual setting if possible. For example, teachers may need to take their students into the hallways to practice the expected behaviors.
Teaching Expectations: Lesson Components Rationale: Rule for when to use the skill Teach: Describe the skills needed to meet expectations Model: Demonstrate the skills Role play: Students practice the skills Performance feedback: Give praise and correction
Teach your expectations before the activity or transition begins. Monitor student behavior by circulating and visually scanning. Provide feedback during the activity and at the conclusion of the activity. Begin the cycle again for the next activity. Teaching Expectations: Teach-Monitor-Feedback Loop 41
Developing and Teaching Expectations: Summary Clearly define classroom expectations. Utilize all lesson components when teaching expectations. Teach expectations to mastery. Incorporate behavioral instruction throughout your day.
Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Develop classroom expectations that are aligned with your school-wide expectations. Continue work on Section 2 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.
PBIS IN THE CLASSROOM Encouraging Positive Behavior
So what’s the big deal about all this acknowledgement anyway? They should already know how to do school anyway… right? Acknowledgement
Poverty & Language Approximately one year (11-18 months) Children in poverty—hear 250,000 words per year Children in homes of professionals—hear 4 million words per year (Hart & Risley, 1995) 46
Poverty & Language Affirmative statements Professional—30 per hour Working class—15 per hour Poverty—6 per hour (prohibition twice as often as affirmative feedback) 47 (Hart & Risley, 1995)
Poverty & Language “To keep the confidence-building experiences of welfare children equal to those of working class children, the welfare children would need to be given 1,100 more instances of affirmative feedback per week…” (p.201). “It would take 26 hours per week of substituted experience for the average welfare child’s experience with affirmatives to equal that of the average working- class child” (p. 202). (Hart & Risley, 1995) 48
Encouraging Positive Behaviors Expectations alone will not support demonstration of positive behavior. Students must be encouraged to meet expectations. Classroom systems for reinforcement need to be aligned with any school-wide system. The strategies in this section will help ensure that adults will focus on positive behavior in a consistent and frequent manner. The Bottom Line: You get what you attend to.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Apply Pre-correction Strategies Pre-corrects function as prompts for expected behavior. Opportunities for practice are provided in close proximity to context. Especially helpful when teacher anticipates behavior errors. Only effective after behavior is taught and learned. Example “Remember before you leave class, collect your materials, put your papers in the bin, and walk quietly out the room.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Motivation ( = Expectancy x Value) Motivation is crucial to getting students to follow your expectations. If a person thinks she will succeed at a task, and she values what she will get as a result of succeeding, then her motivation will be high. Does the classroom climate communicate value in student success? How? Do students feel safe in classroom to take risks in learning? Do we find a balance in “stretching students cognition”?
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Motivation ( = Expectancy x Value) Students will be more motivated to complete a task when they… understand why it is useful to them. see the big picture of what they will be able to accomplish. connect it to other skills and tasks they already know.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Enthusiasm Teacher enthusiasm communicates value and increases student motivation. Enthusiasm is the degree to which teachers project the belief that teaching is interesting, meaningful and important. Communicating enthusiasm is done through presentation of content, not through pep talks or theatrics.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Students are more likely to respond to directions and instructions when they have already established relationships with adults. Demonstrating personal regard for all students is an important way to create genuine and positive relationships. Your level of regard for students is communicated in brief, often subtle, and frequent daily interactions of which you may not be aware.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships We all know that positive relationships with students are important, but sometimes we don’t know how to build them. 40 years ago research was done to determine the specific interactions teachers need to engage in to build relationship and communicate high expectations. This research resulted in the TESA model (Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement). One of the key findings from TESA was that personal regard for students as human beings is crucial.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Personal Regard- See the student as a human being Go below the surface to experience the hidden culture of the classroom
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Relationships will Improve over time when you consistently demonstrate personal regard. How? Greet students everyday. Be aware of student absences and let your students know you are glad they are back upon return. Share your personal interests. Ask the students to give their perspective of how things are going in the school.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Relationships will Improve over time when you consistently demonstrate personal regard. How? Admit mistakes. Make special effort to greet or talk to students who have been having trouble. Notice when students are proud of something and compliment it. Be willing to pause from instruction to talk with a student about a personal matter, if needed.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships There are many ways to greet students. Do what works for you and give options for students who may not be comfortable with verbal communication. It is important to show that you connect with students, but only share as much personal information that you are comfortable with and that is appropriate. Take the time to notice small things. Find time to connect with a student. Demonstrate that human needs are more important than tasks.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Reinforcement Behavior needs to be reinforced in order for it to be repeated. Teacher attention should focus on positive behavior at least four times more often than on negative behavior. How do we do with this in our lives outside of school? Commit to making a conscious effort to practice reinforcement prior to correcting problems.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Reinforcement Reinforcement needs to be frequent and consistent. Positive reinforcement can be: Verbal Physical Social Tangible Verbal reinforcement needs to contain specific information about the behavior you want repeated.
Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Summary Expectations will not be consistently demonstrated without motivation and reinforcement. Building genuine positive relationships is critical to encourage positive behavior. Positive feedback should be given four times more often than corrective feedback. Reinforcement can be done in a variety of ways and a system needs to be in place to ensure frequency.
Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Complete Section 3 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.
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