3Fertile Ground: Creating the Context for Sustainable Implementation of PBIS 11:00 to 12:15 Elizabeth EKent McIntoshUniversity of OregonAPBS Conference, March 2013
4Support for these projects: IES: NCSER (R324A120278)OSEP: TA Center on PBS (H326S03002)Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada (SRG F )Hampton Endowment Fund (J )
5Thanks and Acknowledgments Participants in these studiesState NetworksJerry Bloom, Susan Barrett and PBIS MarylandCristy Clouse, Barbara Kelley and CalTACEric Kloos, Ellen Nacik, Char Ryan and Minnesota DOEMike Lombardo, Rainbow Crane and Placer COELori Lynass, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Chris Borgmeier, Tricia Robles and NWPBISMary Miller-Richter, Nanci Johnson and MO SW-PBSJustyn Poulos, Wisconsin PBISHeather Reynolds, NC DOECo-authors
6Lessons learned for sustaining School-wide PBIS Focus on bringing PBIS into the classroomConsistency with SW systemsHigh rates of acknowledgment for prosocial behaviorFocus on quality differentiated instruction across academic domainsStudent instruction at their levelResearch from our stateWe used to think, don’t worry about the classrooms – let’s do the SW and NC and then eventually get in the classrooms
7ObjectiveParticipants will create a classroom plan based on Positive Behavior Intervention and Support philosophies.Key Points: All activities will culminate into a thorough classroom management plan.
8Today’s Agenda PBIS Overview Routines and Procedures Defining Classroom ExpectationsTeaching ExpectationsEncouraging Positive BehaviorCollaborative Work and Next StepsKey Points:Today’s agenda leads us through the development of your classroom management plan.
9Participant Expectations Be ResponsibleReturn promptly from breaksBe an active participantUse electronic devices appropriatelyBe RespectfulMaintain cell phone etiquetteListen attentively to othersLimit sidebars and stay on topicBe KindEnter discussions with an open mindRespond appropriately to others’ ideasHonor confidentialityKey Points:These are participant expectations for today. We expect participants to be responsible, respectful, and kind throughout today’s session whether in lecture, group work, discussion, or activities. This slide describes what those expectations look like.Remind the group of beginning, break, and end times.Mention cell phone, laptop, and other electronic etiquette.We plan to discuss difficult concepts and ideas today, so we encourage listening and thoughtful, professional responses. People are welcome to share personal thoughts and aha’s today. Therefore, we think it is important to honor confidentiality of what you and others discover about yourselves and each other today.
10Attention SignalPlease make note of time limits and watch your clocks!Trainer will raise his/her hand.Finish your thought/comment.Participants will raise a hand and wait quietly.Key Points:These are the directions for the signal that will be used to gain the audience attention throughout the training.Practice by asking everyone to turn to their neighbor and say “good morning” and tell them how happy you are to be here today.After about 15 seconds, raise your hand and say, “Attention here.” Time how long it takes all participants to get quiet.Emphasize finishing thought or comment before raising hand.Stop talking once hand is raised.10
11What is PBIS? Key Points: This next section focuses on the basic philosophy behind PBIS. This philosophy is the basis for the classroom management practices taught in the session.
12Positive Behavior Intervention and Support: Definition A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students- Rob Horner, Ph.D.Co-Director National Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and SupportKey Points:Big Idea: PBS is about changing the overall climate so that everyone can be successful, not just about managing behavior problems. This is a big mind shift for schools. Other key features are:Continuum of interventionsFocus on systems and the environmentShifts attention to increasing appropriate behavior, not decreasing problem behavior.Focus on instruction of behavior and teaching social skills.For all kids—we need to support all students and those who need lots of support.A collaborative process, not a programUses best practices in professional development and system change (teams)Data based decision making drives changeIncorporates best practice in professional development and system change (teams)Emphasizes the use of assessment information to guide intervention and management decisionsFocuses on increasing the contextual fit between problem context and what we know work
13Guiding Principles All students are valuable and deserve respect. All students can be taught to demonstrate appropriate behavior.Punishment does not work to change behavior.School climate is a shared responsibility among administrators, teachers, staff, students and families.Key Points:These principles guide all the work we do with PBISIt is important that the faculty think about each of these principals and reflect on if they agree or disagreeSome of these principals can be more controversial:All students can be taught to demonstrate appropriate behavior: Not everyone believes this… even students who have had chronic challenges need a chance to learn and need the benefit of our belief that they can do it.Punishment does not work to change behavior: while it may in the short term research shows that punishment on its own doesn’t change behavior in a lasting way
14Guiding PrinciplesSchool personnel must be willing to examine their own behavior as students are taught to change theirs.Cultural differences exist and need to be understood.Positive relationships between students and adults are key to student success.Key Points:Other principles to discussSchool personnel must be willing to examine their own behavior: You can’t expect students to change their behavior if we won’t change ours. If you keep doing what you are doing then you keep getting what you are getting!Cultural differences exist and need to be understood: We have to be willing to adapt to and understand the different needs of our students. We can’t just expect that they will conform to our standards.Positive relationships are key: without relationships strategies are meaningless. Have to find ways to connect with all students! Rules with out relationships lead to rebellion
15Supporting Social Competence and Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupportingStaff BehaviorSupportingDecisionMakingKey Points:This graphic describes the interplay between the three elements needed to achieve desired outcomes. Each system supports the other. What makes PBS different is that all three parts must be addressed to create sustainable changePractices-support student behaviorSystems-support adult behavior (which must change first)Data-supports decision makingSchools usually focus only on changing practices, but then no one follows though on suggested changes WHY? Because if you don’t think about how to support the adults to make the necessary changes they will be less likely to do it. This requires changing the systems . Also if you make changes that are not based on real meaningful data, the changes will feel irrelevant to staff and they will be less likely to follow thoughTo maximize effectiveness we must implement all three.SYSTEMSDATAPRACTICESPositiveBehaviorInterventionandSupportSupporting Student Behavior
16POSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION AND 5%CONTINUUM OFPOSITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION ANDSUPPORTFBA/BIPDe-escalation15%Social SkillsMentoringCheck InSelf ManagementClassroom Based InterventionKey Points:This graphic shows how PBIS is a continuum; Universal interventions will support the majority of students, additional secondary and tertiary interventions support a small number of students who need additional interventions to be successful. If all interventions are in place then the smallest number of students as possible will need the most intensive help.Universal (green): Universal strategies are for all students. Stress the importance of having universals in place before adding more intensive strategies for at risk and high risk students You will be tempted to start with the top, but this is an inefficient use of resources. Effectively implemented universals (listed in the green section on the slide) will assist the majority of students to demonstrate appropriate behavior. However, universals will not decrease behavior to zero.Strategies for students with at-risk behavior (yellow): The next layer of intervention (strategies listed on slide). These students need additional supports to learn and practice pro-social behavior.Strategies for students with high-risk behavior (red): After first two layers of interventions, you should be left with a small group of students who need intensive individualized support. These students need highly individualized plans .Other Key PointsIf you invert the triangle you will see the amount of staff time required at each level.Many schools initially say that we have less than 80% of our students who are in the green area and more than 20% in the top two levels. This indicates a need for stronger, more effective school-wide systems. This graphic is when PBS is in place in schools and working.You will always have a 5% regardless of your population. Your system-wide, secondary, and tertiary interventions can vary according to students’ overall needs.Remind teams they will be doing double duty for a while: you will be dealing with individual kids as you are creating the system of universal support. Without building universal systems of support, interventions implemented for individual students will not be sustainable.Incidentally, we find that school faculty will be distributed the same way in regard to their “buy in” and support needed to implement PBS.80%Defining & Teaching ExpectationsRoutines & ProceduresReinforcement SystemsEffective Consequences
17Traditional Discipline vs. PBIS Focuses on the student’s problem behaviorGoal is to stop undesirable behavior, through the use of punishmentPrimarily reactivePositive Behavior Intervention and SupportReplaces undesired behavior with a new behavior or skillPBIS alters environments, teaches appropriate skills, and rewards appropriate behaviorPrimarily proactiveKey Points:These are the key differences between traditional discipline and the PBS approach. Biggest shift is from reactive to proactive
18Pbis in the classroom Management Key Points: This course is intended to be a supporting topic to schools that are implementing PBIS. It is best (but not required) if module one has been completed and some school-wide universal strategies are in place prior to taking this course.Management18
19What is Effective Classroom Management? Classroom management refers to all of the things that an educator does to organize students, space, time, and materials, so that instruction in content and student learning can take place.Key Points:The classroom is yours to to manage. You can use space, organization, structure, materials, and time to maximize positive behavior and learning. Things can still go wrong, but are less likely, and usually more manageable with better classroom management19
20Classroom Management Plan At the end of each section, you will be asked to apply learning to your own classroom management plan.Use the classroom management plan template to guide you.Your overall plan should include:Routines and proceduresClassroom expectationsMethods for teaching expectationsProcedures for encouraging positive behaviorProcedures for responding to problem behaviorKey Points:Components result in one comprehensive plan that will describe all of you classroom management strategies. This is a useful tool for communicating with substitutes, parents and even students if developmentally appropriate.
21Routines and Procedures Pbis in the classroomKey Points:In this section we will cover:Physical SpaceScheduleAttention SignalBeginning RoutinesDuring Class RoutinesEnding RoutinesRoutines and Procedures
22Routines and Procedures: Definition Routines are a habitual performance of an established procedure.Procedures are a series of steps followed in a regular definite order.Key Points:Routines and procedures are often overlooked or minimized, but are worth every minute of time put into them. All students need routines and procedure regardless of age.Effective routines and procedures are crucial to classroom management because they:Save timeEstablish predictabilityPromote consistencyReduce anxietyTalk with your neighbor. Share one routine you completed today. What steps were involved?Pick one lucky spokesman to share out on one routine.22
23Routines and Procedures: Physical Space The physical environment can hinder or promote successful behavior.Maximize positive behavior:Arrange seats in a way that allows easy access to all studentsUtilize seating arrangements that match the level of structure students needEnsure areas with high traffic have ample room for students to give each other spaceInclude a quiet area for students to take a break when neededResearch shows that people with attention or processing disorders are more productive and feel safer in environments that are not cluttered.ournal of Clinical PsychologySpecial Issue: ADHD in Adolescents and AdultsVolume 61, Issue 5, pages 565–577, May 2005Re-evaluate and change the space at any point in the year if it isn’t workingClassroom arrangement directly impacts how frequently and easily you can come in proximity to each student. Proximity is very important because it is both a relationship building interaction and a method of managing behaviorSeating arrangement can also impact student interactions both positively and negatively. Not all students can handle the social requirements of cluster seating “students with social skills deficits are not great in situations that require them to be social”.Create areas where students are more likely to have adequate space and access to materials.A quiet area should not be considered a punishment area, but should be a tool that students are taught to use independently when needed as well as a place teachers can suggest students use to de-escalate a possible conflict.23
26Routines and Procedures: Schedule A daily or class period schedule increases predictability and reduces transition time.Schedules:Meet student needs as much as possible (i.e. length of activity & student attention span)Are flexible, but not loosePosted in areas visible to entire room (add pictures as needed)Have a balance of various types of instructionKey Points:Consider length of each activity: not all kids can attend for the same amount of timeMost people use a schedule of some kind, but often it is not clear to all students. Make sure you consider the learning styles of the students in your class and use visuals as well as words when posting a schedule.While block scheduling often dictates the type of material you have to cover in a given time period, you can break up the way this material is presented.Students with different learning needs will respond differently to various types of instruction26
27Routines and Procedures: Attention Signal An attention signal is a visual or verbal cue used to gain the attention of students so that learning and teaching take place.All teachers, regardless of student age, should use an attention signal.Effective attention signals:Used across all settingsStudents can respond quicklyTaught and practiced regularlyIdeas:Give me 5.Hand up (must teach)Auditory (think about field trip and outside)Rhythmic clappingKey Points:Teaching time can be lost due to ineffective transitioning. Having an attention signal can reduce that transition time, limit correctives, and systematically cue students to attend to adult. Attention signals must be taught to be effective.Give Me Five =Teacher holds up 5 fingers one at a time and students respond by demonstrating the five components of attention (eyes on speaker, quiet, be still, hands free (put things down) and listen)Clapping is often used in elementary schools and is very effective because the process of giving attention is something they like doingHand up and wait is the preferred attention signal we use for trainings and it is very effective, but requires patienceAuditory signal like a bell are very attention grabbing, but need to be able to be used in all settings (field trip, outside etc)Rhythmic clapping is an example of a signal with a response, but this can be anything that works for you
28Routines and Procedures: Attention Signal Process Attention signal practice:Make sure students are attending before moving on.Be willing to wait.Reinforce students who attend immediately.Provide specific verbal praise when students comply.Be consistent.Remain calm.(For students who continue to be non-compliant after initial learning period, let them know they will owe you back the time it takes out of the lesson- “time owed”. Time owed: Student completes work or tasks missed due to misbehavior on their own time.)Key Points:If you don’t wait for all students to respond you are beginning to give the message that you don’t really mean what you say. This can be very damaging later when you are trying to redirect a student or enforce a consequence. However, don’t let a child who’s seeking attention stop the whole class for a long time. Talk to that child later private and develop a plan.Consistency is key and the students will learn that they very first time you try this, so be consistent from the beginning. Sometimes it can take several minutes for students to “get it” initially, let them know that you are going to keep track of how long it takes and make a game out of getting the time down as quickly as possibleIf students continue to be non-compliant after the initial learning period let them know they will owe you back the time it takes out of the lesson.28
29Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines The beginning of the day is an important time to have efficient routines.Entrance routines set the tone for the entire class.Students need to feel welcome and immediately start a productive task.Key Points:Important to greet students everyday, make sure that each day is a new start and they are welcome no matter what occurred previously. It is good to have students respond in some way to gauge the mood. Example: if you are standing at the door greeting students saying “good morning” it is good to teach the students to respond to you (saying good morning, high five, thumbs up etc.)If a student is refuses to respond, you may want to pull them aside to check in and help them shake off whatever they are bringing in with them from home or before school.Greet students daily- “good morning”, high five, thumbs up(Can use to prevent future problems)29
30Routines and Procedures: Opening Routines Opening classroom procedures to teach:Entering class and getting startedArriving after instruction has startedHanding in workObtaining needed materialsReturning after an absenceNo right or wrong way.Just need to have a plan & explicitly teach it.Key Points:There are many different tasks that need to be completed at the start of each day and each task has a specific procedure that needs to be taught and practicedNot an all inclusive list, but things to considerThere is no right or wrong way to do these things, just as long as you have a plan. Lack of any plan can result in a lot of chaos an opportunities for behavior problemsSecondary schedules may accommodate this strategy differentlyMorning meetings are part of Responsive Classrooms, a comprehensive model of classroom management based on building community. There is a separate training on Responsive Classrooms if you are interested in learning more about this model*Kriete, Roxann. The Morning Meeting Book. Northeast Foundation for Children pp. 9.30
31Routines and Procedures: During Class Routines Because content and instructional methods change, a variety of routines are needed throughout the day or class period.Classroom procedures to teach:Getting assignments and turning in workManaging independent work timesManaging cooperative work timesGetting assistanceTransitioningTeach and practice until demonstrated without much prompting.Key Points:Efficient procedures for managing student work and common tasks facilitate the classroom running smoothlyThese routines are examples of common classroom tasks, but there are many more. Create your own list of key routines that you want students to perform and focus on those. Teach and practice until they are demonstrating them without much prompting.31
32Routines and Procedures: Ending Routines Ending class in a calm and predictable manner can facilitate a better start to the next day or class.Teach students how to clean up, organize materials and prepare for the next transition.Methods for giving and receiving feedback about the class should also be included.Key Points:Ending Routines are important and can really set you up for the next day.When giving feedback ensure a positive start for the next day, even if behavior has not been idealFeedback is a good way to help student learn to monitor their own behavior, with older students they can self reflect. Easy way- have students give a thumbs up, in the middle or thumbs down on how they thought their day went. Give them an opportunity to reflect on how to make it better tomorrowHelp them be prepared for next class and to transitions effectively to next destinationAn “exit ticket” of three or fewer questions about the class is an effective way for secondary level students to wrap up the class and get ready to leave.Ideas:Increase student monitoring by building in self-evaluation: thumbs up or down and reflect on improvements for tomorrow.Exit ticket with three or fewer questions32
33Routines and Procedures: Summary Routines and procedures should be taught and practiced with students.Physical space and schedule can be manipulated to maximize positive behavior.An attention signal is a useful tool for all teachers.Have and teach specific routines for the beginning, middle and end of the day or class.Key Points:Review of this section
34Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Select one key routine that you plan to teach your students.Develop steps to teach that routine and complete Section 1 of the Classroom PBIS Plan.Continue work on Section 1 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.Complete at least one routine during this activity
35Developing and Teaching Expectations Pbis in the classroomKey Points:In this section today we will cover:The development of classroom expectations and specific behaviors for students to demonstrateMethods for teaching expectationsDeveloping and Teaching Expectations
36Classroom Expectations In order for positive behavior to be demonstrated, there must be clear expectations.Students need to know what is expected of them and how to meet those expectations.Classroom expectations must be related to school- wide expectations, but can be modified to be specific to your class.Key Points:Expectations are often too broad for students to understand how to demonstrate them. Your classroom expectations need to support any school wide rules and if aligned are more likely to become part of the classroom culture
37Developing Expectations Expectations should be created with input from stakeholders.Base expectations on common classroom problems.State the expectations in the positive, using specific and observable terms.Develop expectations for different types of instruction.When developing the list of expected behaviors, they need to be: positively stated, specific, observable, visible from all parts of a classroom and referred to oftenMost PBIS schools have school-wide expectations that describe how the students and staff should conduct themselves in various settings in the building. Your classroom rules will be the examples of what those school wide expectations would look like demonstrated in your class. Non-PBIS schools should utilize their school norms to develop classroom expectations. Classroom expectations (broad) and the list of specific skills they want students to demonstrate differ. Classrooms need both.Positively Stated means= tell the students what you want them to do, NOT what you don’t want them to do.
38Teaching Expectations Behavioral expectations must be overtly taught and practiced. Same as academic!Establish methods for teaching expected behaviors that meet learning needs.…Video, role play, visualsTeach regularly throughout the year, especially when students…transition in or out of school.return from breaks.demonstrate they have not mastered the expectations.Key Points:Teach behavioral concepts the same way you would approach academic onesNot all students learn the same way so use a variety of methods such as video, role play, visual displays etc. to meet the needsStudents are more likely to comply with expectations that have been overtly taught and explained to mastery.There are two types of behavioral lessons: Concept and skills. Concept lesson are way of teaching broad school wide expectations such as respect, success, responsibility etc. Students need to focus on the meaning of the concept before teaching the specifics. A skill lesson is the designed to teach how an expectations is demonstrated in a given setting. Skill lessons are more specific and are taught in the setting.Practice in the actual setting if possible. For example, teachers may need to take their students into the hallways to practice the expected behaviors.Decide which prompts and reminders staff are to use before they expect students to display the behavior. An example is “Remember to be safe by keeping hands and feet to self.”Inform all staff how to teach acceptable behavior. For example one school had a long discussion about whether students can kick the red rubber balls on the playground. This was found to be an area of staff inconsistency.
39Teaching Expectations Conceptual LevelBroad idea (respect, responsible, safe)Start here: Focus on concept 1stSkill LevelSpecific to settingTaught in setting (when possible)Practice in the actual setting if possible. For example, teachers may need to take their students into the hallways to practice the expected behaviors.
40Teaching Expectations: Lesson Components Rationale: Rule for when to use the skillTeach: Describe the skills needed to meet expectationsModel: Demonstrate the skillsRole play: Students practice the skillsPerformance feedback: Give praise and correctionHandout Social Skills Lesson Plan Template, Social Skills Lesson Plan Example and Social Skills Curriculum ListKey Points:Lesson should be meaningful to the students and appropriate for their age group. Plan enough time to ensure all students have the opportunity to learn and practice the skillVideos are a great method for introducing or reinforcing a lesson, but should not be the sole teaching method.Teach in the setting. Have students generate ideas around why a particular skill or expectation is important.Teach the specifics of the desired expectation or skill. Some skills are complicated and need to be broken into steps.Provide feedback to help students know what they did correctly and what to improveAfter lessons have been taught plan for activities aimed at helping students generalize the skill. Students need to be able transfer the skill or concept across settings and scenarios.Support initial teaching by integrating expectations into the curriculum throughout the day.Visual displaysVideosPractice with role playDiscussionsModelingTeach-Monitor-Feedback at each transition point
41Teaching Expectations: Teach-Monitor-Feedback Loop Teach yourexpectationsbefore theactivity ortransition begins.Monitor studentbehaviorby circulatingand visuallyscanning.Provide feedbackduring theactivity andat the conclusionof the activity.Key Points:This diagram illustrates the best way to integrate teaching expected behaviors throughout the day. It is important that student are given opportunities to practice new skills and feedback is given immediately after desired behaviors are demonstrated.Repetition of teaching and giving feedback will assist students to internalize the expected behaviors. Once students are demonstrating the behaviors consistently you can reduce the frequency of teaching, but never stop giving feedback on student behavior.Begin the cycle again forthe next activity.41
42Developing and Teaching Expectations: Summary Clearly define classroom expectations.Utilize all lesson components when teaching expectations.Teach expectations to mastery.Incorporate behavioral instruction throughout your day.Key Points:This is a review of this section on creating and teaching expectations.
43Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Develop classroom expectations that are aligned with your school-wide expectations.Continue work on Section 2 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.Complete at least one routine during this activity
44Encouraging Positive Behavior Pbis in the classroomKey Points: If routines/procedures were developed and taught, expectations were established and taught, that would be fabulous, but may not be enough. Students need encouragement and motivation to exhibit behaviors on a regular and consistent basis.Encouraging Positive Behavior
45AcknowledgementSo what’s the big deal about all this acknowledgement anyway?They should already know how to do school anyway… right?
46Poverty & Language Approximately one year (11-18 months) Children in poverty—hear 250,000 words per yearChildren in homes of professionals—hear 4 million words per year(Hart & Risley, 1995)Contributing Factors-Poverty & LanguageThis research from KU in the late 60’s and early 70’s is a longitudinal study of parents and children from Juniper Gardens in Kansas City, Kansas.Stress the connection between language problems and behavior problems: schools use language to mediate ALL instruction and learning—if students are struggling with language, “acting out” behavior or “shutting down” makes sense. Even hands-on activities require verbal instructions which can cause problems for these students. The language we use in schools is white middle class and female.This slide helps educators begin to make a shift in thinking about how to address behavior as a learning error.ReferenceHart, B & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful difference in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Brookes.
47Poverty & Language Affirmative statements Professional—30 per hour Working class—15 per hourPoverty—6 per hour (prohibition twice as often as affirmative feedback)Meaningful DifferencesProfessional parents use affirmative language like “good job,” “keep trying,” etc. “More than 80% of the feedback to the month old was affirmative. When the children…. were months old almost 70% of the feedback they gave to other family members was affirmative.”Parents in poverty use prohibitive statements such as “NO,” “Quit,” “Don’t.” “Almost 80% of the …feedback to their month old children was negative; almost 80% of the children’s feedback to family members when they were months old was negative (Hart & Risley, 1995). The overuse of prohibitive statements can desensitize students and cause them to ignore negatives.There is no such thing as “good” or “bad language—all subjective. Kids don’t know language is “bad” until they enter school.The differences in language at home and in school may lead to confusion for the child as he is being corrected for using the only language he knows. Teacher may say, “We don’t use words like that in school.” There is a disconnect between the student’s learning history and what they hear in school.ReferenceHart, B & Risley, T.R. (1995). Meaningful difference in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Brookes.(Hart & Risley, 1995)
48Poverty & Language“To keep the confidence-building experiences of welfare children equal to those of working class children, the welfare children would need to be given 1,100 more instances of affirmative feedback per week…” (p.201).“It would take 26 hours per week of substituted experience for the average welfare child’s experience with affirmatives to equal that of the average working- class child” (p. 202).(Hart & Risley, 1995)Meaningful Differences (continued)These data stress the need for early intervention.This study stresses the need for proactive classroom instruction if many of your students have a similar learning history.We are now seeing the same learning histories in professional homes where both parents work; children are fighting for language attention in day care.“Our experience in preschool intervention suggests that it will take thousands of hours of affirmative feedback even to begin to overcome what this child has learned about herself in the first 3 years of life” (p. 188).“Just to provide an average welfare child with an amount of weekly language experience equal to that of an average working-class child would require 41 hours per week of out-of-home experience as rich in words addressed to the child as that in an average professional home” (p. 201).What implications does this have for school environments? How many hours a week do we typically see students in school? Schools have the potential to provide substituted experiences for students in language-rich environments and begin to level the field.ReferenceHart, B. & Risley, T.R. (1995) Meaningful difference in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Brookes
49Encouraging Positive Behaviors Expectations alone will not support demonstration of positive behavior.Students must be encouraged to meet expectations.Classroom systems for reinforcement need to be aligned with any school-wide system.The strategies in this section will help ensure that adults will focus on positive behavior in a consistent and frequent manner.Key Points:Focusing on positive behavior first is one of the biggest shifts from traditional classroom management. It takes time.The Bottom Line: You get what you attend to.49
50Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Apply Pre-correction Strategies Pre-corrects function as prompts for expected behavior.Opportunities for practice are provided in close proximity to context.Especially helpful when teacher anticipates behavior errors.Only effective after behavior is taught and learned.Key Points:Pre-corrects can give students opportunities to practice the expected behavior. Example: demonstrating behavior expected when playing a game at recess prior to beginning game.Can be verbal or modeled prompts for the expected behavior.Pre-corrects are provided when teachers anticipate students will not display the appropriate behavior. If you know that students typically run down the hallway at dismal, you can remind them to walk to their area.Examples of Pre-Corrects“Remember, before you leave class, collect all your materials, put your papers in the bin, and quietly walk out of the room.”“Sam, show us how to be respectful and line up quietly for lunch.”“My hands are hanging by my sides, I’m standing straight and tall. My eyes look up, my mouth is closed, I’m ready for the hall.”Example “Remember before you leave class, collect your materials, put your papers in the bin, and walk quietly out the room.50
51Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Motivation ( = Expectancy x Value) Motivation is crucial to getting students to follow your expectations.If a person thinks she will succeed at a task, and she values what she will get as a result of succeeding, then her motivation will be high.Does the classroom climate communicate value in student success? How?Do students feel safe in classroom to take risks in learning?Do we find a balance in “stretching students cognition”?Key Points:Expectancy Rate X Value Rate = MotivationPeople are most motivated when they believe they have a chance of succeeding. If we don’t believe that we have a chance to succeed we won’t even attempt the task.We also are more motivated when the success of our tasks is valued in the culture/climate. So we want to create this environment in our class.We need the classroom to be a safe place to take a risk. Another factor or motivation in challenge. People like challenges, but not too difficult..it’s a balance we must find as the leader of the class.This can be challenging when students are at so many levels of needs, but it is more attainable if we consider these factors when we design lessons.51
52Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Motivation ( = Expectancy x Value) Students will be more motivated to complete a task when they…understand why it is useful to them.see the big picture of what they will be able to accomplish.connect it to other skills and tasks they already know.Key Points:Expectancy Rate X Value Rate = MotivationPeople are most motivated when they believe they have a chance of succeeding. If we don’t believe that we have a chance to succeed we won’t even attempt the task.We also are more motivated when the success of our tasks is valued in the culture/climate. So we want to create this environment in our class.We need the classroom to be a safe place to take a risk. Another factor or motivation in challenge. People like challenges, but not too difficult..it’s a balance we must find as the leader of the class.This can be challenging when students are at so many levels of needs, but it is more attainable if we consider these factors when we design lessons.52
53Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Enthusiasm Teacher enthusiasm communicates value and increases student motivation.Enthusiasm is the degree to which teachers project the belief that teaching is interesting, meaningful and important.Communicating enthusiasm is done through presentation of content, not through pep talks or theatrics.Key PointsYou set the tone for how students experience the classroom.Enthusiasm doesn’t need to be dramatic, but does need to be genuineWe must be enthusiastic about what we are teaching. Our attitude conveys so much. We must believe it’s important, exciting, and help students want to learn it.(Last two points on the slide taken from Art and Science of Teaching, Chapter 5 (Marzano)53
54Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Students are more likely to respond to directions and instructions when they have already established relationships with adults.Demonstrating personal regard for all students is an important way to create genuine and positive relationships.Your level of regard for students is communicated in brief, often subtle, and frequent daily interactions of which you may not be aware.Key PointsWe all know that positive relationships with students are important, but sometimes we don’t know how to build them40 years ago research was done to determine the specific interactions teachers need to engage in to build relationship and communicate high expectations. This research resulted in the TESA model (Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement)One of the key findings from TESA was that personal regard for students as human beings is crucial.Relationships will Improve over time when you consistently demonstrate personal regard.Greet students everyday.Be aware of student absences and let your students know you are glad they are back upon return.Share your personal interests.Ask the students to give their perspective of how things are going in the school.Admit mistakes.Make special effort to greet or talk to students who have been having trouble.Notice when students are proud of something and compliment it.Be willing to pause from instruction to talk with a student about a personal matter, if needed.There are many ways to greet students, handshake, high five, thumbs up etc. Do what works for you and give options for students who may not be comfortable with verbal communicationIt is important to show that you connect with students, but only share as much personal information that you are comfortable with and that is appropriate.Take the time to notice small things, stop what you are doing if a student wants to talk with you. Demonstrate that human needs are more important than tasks54
55Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships We all know that positive relationships with students are important, but sometimes we don’t know how to build them.40 years ago research was done to determine the specific interactions teachers need to engage in to build relationship and communicate high expectations. This research resulted in the TESA model (Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement).One of the key findings from TESA was that personal regard for students as human beings is crucial.
56Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Personal Regard-See the student as a human beingGo below the surface to experience the hidden culture of the classroom
57Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Relationships will Improve over time when you consistently demonstrate personal regard.How?Greet students everyday.Be aware of student absences and let your students know you are glad they are back upon return.Share your personal interests.Ask the students to give their perspective of how things are going in the school.
58Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships Relationships will Improve over time when you consistently demonstrate personal regard.How?Admit mistakes.Make special effort to greet or talk to students who have been having trouble.Notice when students are proud of something and compliment it.Be willing to pause from instruction to talk with a student about a personal matter, if needed.
59Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Relationships There are many ways to greet students. Do what works for you and give options for students who may not be comfortable with verbal communication.It is important to show that you connect with students, but only share as much personal information that you are comfortable with and that is appropriate.Take the time to notice small things. Find time to connect with a student. Demonstrate that human needs are more important than tasks.
60Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Reinforcement Behavior needs to be reinforced in order for it to be repeated.Teacher attention should focus on positive behavior at least four times more often than on negative behavior.How do we do with this in our lives outside of school?Commit to making a conscious effort to practice reinforcement prior to correcting problems.Key Points:4 to 1 ratio is difficult because we often are so happy when a student is acting appropriately we don’t want to jinx it by giving the student a positive statement or we are too busy to notice what is working.Example: How many times have you thanked your husband, partner, etc for taking out the trash as opposed to How many times have you nagged when they didn’t do it. If you really want to increase the frequency of them taking out the trash, you should increase the amount of times you thank them.The more you do it the better you will get. Keep trying.60
61Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Reinforcement Reinforcement needs to be frequent and consistent.Positive reinforcement can be:VerbalPhysicalSocialTangibleVerbal reinforcement needs to contain specific information about the behavior you want repeated.Key Points:Examples of each kind of positive feedback.Verbal – Great job entering class quietly and orderly.Physical – pat on back, hug, movementSocial – time to talk, eat, work with peer or peersTangible – sticker, note home, snacks, token, etc.The problem with Good Job is: It is not specific about the behavior you would like the student to know they demonstrated. A better statement is: “ Good Job staying in your seat”.The problem with Thank you is: If it is overused, it gives the impression that the motivation for demonstrating the behavior is to please you as opposed to because it is more effective.You can avoid both of the above by reflecting the behavior you see in a positive tone. EX: wow, I see all of table 1 working quietly, with their eyes on their paper and their hands to themselves. Excellent work”.Strategies for increasing positive reinforcement:Create a “cheat sheet” of starter phrases for praising students.Develop a system to remind you to reinforce on a regular basis (i.e. every 15 minutes, scan room and praise someone).Praise first, correct second.Teach students how to praise each other.61
62Encouraging Positive Behaviors: Summary Expectations will not be consistently demonstrated without motivation and reinforcement.Building genuine positive relationships is critical to encourage positive behavior.Positive feedback should be given four times more often than corrective feedback.Reinforcement can be done in a variety of ways and a system needs to be in place to ensure frequency.Key Points: Key points section 3
63Activity: Classroom PBIS Plan Complete Section 3 of your Classroom PBIS Plan.Key Points:Activity Time:Desired Outcome:
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