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Integrating Speech-Language Services with General Education’s High Stakes Standards Rosanne M. Joseph, MA, CCC-Sp. Simplified Systems of Pedagogy Crosby.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrating Speech-Language Services with General Education’s High Stakes Standards Rosanne M. Joseph, MA, CCC-Sp. Simplified Systems of Pedagogy Crosby."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrating Speech-Language Services with General Education’s High Stakes Standards Rosanne M. Joseph, MA, CCC-Sp. Simplified Systems of Pedagogy Crosby ISD Crosby, Texas 713 -842 -0463 ASHA Convention, 2009

2 2 The Big 5 of Reading Instruction * National Reading Panel Report Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Text Comprehension

3 3 Primary Reading Inventory  Book and Print Awareness  Phonemic Awareness  Graphophonemic Awareness  Word Study  Spelling  Fluency  Vocabulary  Comprehension  Writing

4 4 Reading Objectives Objective 1- Demonstrate a basic understanding of text Objective 2- Apply knowledge of literary elements Objective 3- Use strategies to analyze texts Objective 4- Apply critical thinking to analyze text Insert: Scope and Sequence 1)Meanings of words, figurative language, parts of word help w/ meaning, multiple meanings of words, main idea, details, summarize 2)Characters’ point of view, relationships, traits, mood, motivation, conflicts, change, effect of setting, plot, symbolism, foreshadowing 3)Recognize different types of texts, recognize purpose, use graphics to organize information, compare texts 4)Cause and effect, predict, interpret, conclude, distinguish fact from opinion, implied meaning, connect themes, assess style, tone and mood

5 5 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Students with weak auditory processing skills may have difficulty identifying sounds within words which would negatively impact decoding and encoding skills necessary for reading and spelling Students with articulation errors may exhibit poor spelling and word attack skills Limited vocabulary negatively impacts: ▫the ability to comprehend academic instruction ▫comprehension of ideas presented in texts Limitations in language processing negatively impacts the ability to: ▫make cognitive connections and relationships with incoming information, ▫organize information, ▫recall information in a fluid and timely manner, and ▫express ideas within a logical framework

6 6 Required Instruction to Learn – THE CODE of written language Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Decoding Strategies phonetic rules syllable division morphological awareness

7 7 Phonemic Awareness So important because our system of written language is based on the ability to hear, identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words Sound isolation Blending sounds Segmenting sounds Rhyming Deletion Substitution

8 Situations, Syllables and Rules 7 Syllable Patterns 1.VC 2.VCe 3.VV 4.CV 5.VV 6.V+r 7.C+le RULES Floss Rabbit Drop Double Change @ 85% regular

9 Morpheme Awareness MORPHOLOGY The study of the internal structure of words, and of the rules by which words are formed. 1. Free Morphemes : Morphemes which can be used as a word on its own 2. Bound Morphemes: Morphemes which cannot occur on its own as an independent (or separate) word.

10 Word Endings--Suffixes Grammar related The state, condition of The quality of To have Someone who does Changing from one part of speech to another Changing tense and number

11 11 Breaking the Code (and doing it quickly) Matching sounds to symbols Stable syllable patterns Inflectional endings and superlatives Affixes with meaning Spelling (writing symbols for speech sounds) Decodable texts (Practice with sequenced, predictable patterns) Fluency (reading sounds like talking*) The “marks” tell you how to say it 10

12 12 Fluency  Reading sounds like talking*  Mimic speech prosody by reading in natural stress and phrasing segments  Noun phrase-Verb phrase  Prepositional phrases  Conjunctions  Sensitivity to negation words  Rapid recognition of high frequency words

13 Syntactic Complexity at the Sentence Level Sentence complexity : Comprehension problem for struggling students. Syntactic properties of sentences that make them difficult to understand- ▫the extent to which sentences contain more than one clause ▫extent and nature of complexity in noun phrases (NPs) and verb phrases (VPs). “Sentence complexity might be amenable to treatment that impacts reading comprehension, but most likely not in the form of isolated drill-like exercises that are devoid of the content contexts where such complexity is found.”-Scott, 09 Simple Compound Complex * Insert grammar/syntax reference

14 Vocabulary IEP developer* Words to Know* Most frequently used words TAKS frequently used words Tech support

15 There is a way to teach/learn Vocabulary Explicitly Systematically Intensively Which words? What does it mean? Why is it made that way? Separate, organize, and store the parts ….. helping us learn new words!

16 Vocabulary Groups Core words (Common Words) Instructional Words ( Words used to teach) Specialized Subject Words Need for daily conversation and interaction @ 6,000 (First grade about the same as adults) Repeated consistently across multiple subjects Specific vocabulary related to learning a subject math science social studies language arts

17 Etiology (origin) Where words come from Anglo-Saxons 449 A.D.-1066 A.D. French and Latin 1066 A.D.-1500A.D. Greek + many others as exploration occurred 1500 A.D.-present

18 Most of our words come from 850 core words……. Then we just add pieces and parts The pieces and parts have meaning Grammar Changes ▫number ▫part of speech ▫tense Meaning Changes Prefix+core+Suffix

19 Do the math! @ 25% Anglo Saxon roots @ 60% comes from Latin roots @ 10% comes from Greek roots @ 5% comes from other languages

20 Morphemes: Meaningful Word Parts

21 Word Beginnings--Prefixes Meaning related Distinguishes Size (micro)(maxi) Location (tele)(extra) Position (sub)(inter) Action (re)(de) Opposite (non, un, im) Relationship (anti)(com)(co) Type (eco)(astro)(geo)(bio) Amount (multi)(hemi)(cent)(milli)

22 Suffixes Changing verbs to nouns Changing nouns to adjectives Nouns from adjectives Noun to verb Change tense Change amount Person who Compare Uses the words …. (state) (act of) (being) (person who) in the definition

23 Look for Clues as You Read Side bars Embedded definitions Transition words* Negation words* Antonyms Synonyms

24 Not paying attention Will get you lost! although, but, however, even though, in spite, yet instead of, unless either, or not, isn’t, aren’t, nor, neither, nor, don’t, doesn't, won't. wasn’t doubt

25 To Learn the Word.. Do Surgery Pronounce and break the word into parts Identify affixes Recognize the root word and it’s origin Connect to context Use a reference tool Log your findings

26 Reference Tools to Learn Vocabulary Dictionary ( Best to find one that uses spoken vocabulary not written vocabulary to explain) Thesaurus Glossary Word lists Self Help books Grouped Vocabulary Lists Computer Shift F7 (dictionary, thesaurus, multiple meaning, synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, look up option, spell check)

27 27 Vocabulary Side Bars Embedded definitions (,……..,) Language arts vocabulary – sentence, paragraph, consonant/vowel, … Marks – punctuation, quotation, exclamation, question, … Reading vocabulary Character setting plot author page Temporal words: first next last finally before suddenly Reference tools Sort by social, instructional and academic Multiple Meanings Compound Words Word Parts and Origins Morphological Markers Prefixes, Suffixes, Roots Negation words Analogies Antonym and synonym (Shift F7) Words in Context Literary Devices- Figurative Language (Alliteration, Hyperbole, Irony, Metaphor Onomatopoeia, Sarcasm, Simile) Frequently used words 11

28 Relating Details to Main Idea* Comprehension Grid* Narrative vs. Expository Text* Comprehension IEPs*

29 29 “Comprehending” Comprehension Relationship between language and cognition and between language and learning Main Idea Recognizing the plot or intention of the text Read to find out details Visualization—Play a movie in your head (Actors/Scene Selection-Props/Music) Graphic representation of ideas Scaffold the paragraphs ▫Sequence ▫Timeline ▫Cause and Effect ▫Compare and Contrast ▫Description ▫Classifying ▫Problem-Solution 12

30 30 Narrative vs. Expository Structure Narrative Tells a Story Character (s) Relationship of the characters Look for background, introduction, groundwork Setting (s) Connected Events Climbing action Climax Falling action Know the problem and the outcome Summarizing Determine the theme Expository Presents Facts or Explains Semantic Web Time Line/Sequence List Compare and Contrast Outline Cause and Effect Pro and Con How to Description Sub-topics related to the topic Problem-Solution

31 31 Two Types of Texts Narrative ▫Literature ▫Story telling to reflect an expository subject Expository ▫History ▫Science

32 32 NARRATIVE Make a movie in your mind Title Casting Director Set Designer Scene Selection

33 33 Going to the “Movies” in Your Mind The End Who What When Where Introduction NARRATIVE “STORY STRUCTURE

34 Don’t Be Fooled! Homonyms Multiple Meanings Words Examples “Hooks” Figurative Language Literary Devices

35 Literary Devices & Figurative Language When you read …you can’t see the action and read the body language, so the words help you picture the event and experience the emotion in your mind Used to express emotion and feeling Used to explain by relating to something you know Used to keep your interest Used to reflect the slang of the culture

36 Figurative Language Idioms Alliteration Hyperbole Irony Metaphor Onomatopoeia Sarcasm Simile

37 37 Look for Literary Devices in Narratives Flashback Foreshadowing Character’s thoughts Imagery Allegory Tone

38 38 EXPOSITORY TEXT Documentaries Biographies Travel Channel History Channel Animal Planet Entertainment News News Events Nature Shows Sports Stories

39 39 EXPOSITORY Make a documentary in your mind Look for hooks Answer the basic WH questions what who when where Connect the title to the topic sentences in paragraphs Look for the “comma guys” and side bars Sort and Map the information Scaffold the paragraphs

40 40 Make distinctions between Subject /Content words Explaining words Examples Lists/Descriptions Sequences/Timeline Characteristics/Classifying Cause and Effect Compare/Contrast Problem-Solution

41  Main Idea-The big picture  Main Idea of a Section  Details  Vocabulary –opposite/means same as  Italics (Which sentence shows…………..?)  Infer (good guessing-you can tell)  Why? (Because………………)  What will happen?  Graphic Organizer  Feeling  Change


43 43 Instructional Rubrics Analyze student’s current performance Provide a foundation for the development of appropriate instructional or intervention plan A springboard for many curriculum-related applications

44 44 Putting it in IEP Format Use probes to target rubric items to Identify Academic Need and Level Identify academic goal Choose objectives to scaffold towards the goal List support materials necessary to achieve the objective Indicate the accommodations that are necessary to master the objective Indicate the grade level of material Indicate the criteria expected Indicate the level of response and the way it will be measured

45 45 References Bell, Nanci (1991) Visualizing and Verbalizing for Language Comprehension and Thinking Academy of Reading Publications Catts, H. W. (2009) The Narrow View of Reading Promotes a Broad View of Comprehension, Lang Speech Hear Serv. Schools Greene, V. and Enfield, M. (2001) Framing Your Thoughts- Story Form- Comprehension Report Form Language Circle Kamhi, A. G.( 2009) The Case for the Narrow View of Reading, Lang Speech Hear Serv. Schools Moore-Brown, B. & Montgomery, J. (2005) Making a Difference in the Era of Accountability. Eau Claire, WI: Thinking Publications. Moreau, M MindWing Concepts Story Grammar Marker Montgomery, Judy and Moore-Brown, Barbara (2006) START-IN A Response to Intervention (RtI) Program for Reading Greenville, SC Super Duper Publications National Research Council, National Academy Press (1998) Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children Scott, C., (2009) A Case for the Sentence in Reading Comprehension, Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools Texas Education Agency (2006)Austin, TX Performance-Based Monitoring Analysis System WallachG. P., S. Charlton, and J. Christie (2009) Making a Broader Case for the Narrow View: Where to Begin? Lang Speech Hear Serv Schools Wilhelm, J (2001) Improving Comprehension with Think-Aloud Strategies Scholastic Jefferson City, MO

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