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Instructional Strategies for Teaching Literacy to Struggling Readers in Content Areas Darylene Williams M.A., M.S. M.Ed.

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Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies for Teaching Literacy to Struggling Readers in Content Areas Darylene Williams M.A., M.S. M.Ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructional Strategies for Teaching Literacy to Struggling Readers in Content Areas Darylene Williams M.A., M.S. M.Ed.

2 National Assessment of Educational Progress Numbers show no significant difference for 4 th grade from 1992 when 19% of CA students were proficient to 24 % in 2009 and 25% in 2011. Numbers show no significant difference for 8th grade from 1998 when 21% of CA students were proficient to 22 % in 2009 and 24% in 2011.

3 NAEP Scores YearGradeBelow Basic BasicProficientAdvanceAverage Score 1998 8 th CA36%43%21%1%253 1998 8 th *261 2011 8 th CA35%42%21%3%255 2011 8 th * 25%43%29%3%264 1998 4 th CA52%28%16%4%202 1998 4 th *213 2011 4 th CA44%32%19%6%211 2011 4th *34% 25%7%220

4 Research Teach to standards Common Core Standards “when” Standards establish the “what” Teachers determine the “how” Intentional instruction Research shows that - “Students are more likely to grasp a lesson objective that builds on their prior experience.”

5 Literacy Instructional Design Development of reading comprehension instruction in context, K-12. Use of more expository text and development of reading comprehension starting in the primary grades. Informational texts and read aloud books starting in Kindergarten. Content area instruction making connections to places and culture in social studies.

6 Narrative Text Narrative text compare characters and situations Narrative text compare/contrast with readers’ experiences Narrative text from earlier historical periods are often complex Narrative text structure unfamiliar word choices and phrasing

7 Expository Text Expository text use of informational, digital and content curriculum formats. Comprehension developed through connections to prior experiences. Students may have out-of-school knowledge and life experiences. Teachers may need to build background knowledge and demonstrate the connections.

8 Text Structure Supports Vocabulary-visual example, simple definition, sentence Comparisons – personal knowledge, life experiences Graphic Organizers Power point or worksheets - fill-in the blank Conclusions – What have you observed? How does this make a difference?

9 Teaching Strategies Check and build background knowledge, demonstrations, modeling, visuals Students learn with texts in different ways (reading, writing, listening, communicating, conversation) Base instruction with texts within students’ experiences Make instructional activities structured and predictable Ask questions that require extended responses (as opposed to brief yes-no responses.

10 Student Groupings Build investigations of text content (use of the internet) Groupings – pair-share, small group, large group, whole class. Groupings provide for a variety of communication opportunities. Grouping Activities (handout)

11 Developing Specific Strategies Locating information and comprehending Understanding and using book parts (ie. tables of contents, indexes, glossaries, etc) Using the library (Dewey Decimal System, etc.) and other references (newspapers, internet) Reading graphs, charts, maps, globes, & other pictorial information

12 Develop Study Skills Reading and writing are an integral part of the learning process and should be connected. Study skills are used by the learner in the course of acquiring knowledge. Note taking Outlining Summarizing Report Writing

13 Main Idea/Detail Study Method 1.Students skim read the selection. Effective way is to read lead sentences. Identify aids such as maps, diagrams, charts, pictures, & tables. 2.Students used guide and record ideas with details. 3.Review notes prior to a test.

14 Main Idea/Detail Study Method Sequoia, Indian Scholar Main IdeasDetails (Names, Dates, Places, Events, New Terms, Vocabulary) Sequoia (S) wants to develop a written language. (S) Born about 1770….Tennessee, ….Cherokee [C] Indian, ….. Realized books needed for his people…..No written language (S) work is misunderstood Wife burned work.... Lived in woods….Suspected of witchcraft….Indians burned cabin…. Handout [page 181]: Silver, James F. Real-Life Reading Activities for Grades 6-12 ISBN 0-87628-920-0 Center for Applied Research, http://www.phdirect.com

15 Visualization 12 Structure Words used for Retelling Orally and in Writing Use the structure words to help you picture what you are reading and to help you add details to your writing. WhatColor SizeNumber ShapeWhere BackgroundPerspective MovementMood WhenSound Bell, Nanci. Visualizing and Verbalizing Gander Publishing, P.O. Box 780 Avila Beach, CA 93424. 1-800-554-1819

16 Writing Creating descriptions with words that identify characteristics and actions are important to writing development. Words help students write descriptively enabling the student to visualize and remember. Oral communication builds the picture. ObjectCharacteristicAction geesehonkingfly in v-formation Honking geese in flying v-formation foxessly, deviousSearch for prey Sly foxes stalk their prey.

17 Teamwork Studying with another person can be very productive. Working with a partner provides engagement for both individuals. Responding to questions, recall of content materials is key to learning and retaining information. Comparison of notes, because other person may have notes that are different. Handout -

18 Composing Questions for Retelling 1.Read information carefully (about 1 page or 4-6 paragraphs). 2.Student writes brief questions about the information in each paragraph. 3.Student writes answers to questions, so that information is available for review. 4.Student may be able to highlight some answers and based on text vs. printed article. 5.Recall is greater with use of study skills. 6.Handout

19 Principles and Guidelines for Teaching Students with Special Needs Understand the importance of active learning that is meaning-based and of high interest to low achieving students. Create and instructional environment that uses rich context and authentic learning activities relevant to students’ lives.

20 Principles and Guidelines for Teaching Students with Special Needs Encourage risk-taking in learning and create a psychologically safe environment that supports the understanding that people can learn from their mistakes. Try new ideas, support student seeing their success. Adapt the instructional strategies that you have found successful for various groupings and individual learning situations.

21 INCLUDE Strategy 1.Identify classroom environmental, curricular, and instructional demands. 2.Note student learning strengths and needs. 3.Check for potential areas of student success. 4.Look for potential problem areas. 5.Use information gathered to brainstorm adaptations. 6.Decide which adaptations to implement. 7.Evaluate student progress. *Ruddell, Robert. How to Teach Reading to Elem. & Mid. School Students. Pearson Publishing (p. 335)

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