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Bellringer: Type of Audience Member Use adhesive dots to indicate which type of audience member you are currently. Please vote only once by placing dot on poster. Real Learner Vacationer Prisoner

Differentiated Instruction in the Upper Elementary Math Class Presented by Melissa Petrilak

Agenda Addressing diverse learners Identifying the Principles of Differentiated Instruction Applying brain research into practice Identifying ways to assess student learners

Magnetic Quotes Walk around the room and read the statements on the wall. Choose a statement that attracts you and stand near that statement. Why did you select this statement? How does this statement connect to what you know about differentiated instruction or what you think about differentiated instruction.

“Brain Dumps” 1.Summarize ideas up to now. 2.Make a connection to your current professional development plan. 3.Plan how to use the ideas presented in your current setting. 4.Name one important piece of information that you heard up to this point that made you think differently about differentiated instruction. 5.Name one important piece of information you heard so far that you can apply to your position immediately. 6.Name one thing we discussed up to now that you want to hear more about.

Processing Time Guidelines for direct instruction time: Grades:  K to 2 5 to 7 minutes  3 to 7 8 to 12 minutes  8 to 12 12 to 15 minutes

3 Facts and a Fiction Use index card in your folders!

Can you guess the fiction statement? 1.I rode a camel. 2.I met a famous actor in a grocery store. 3.I drove a golf cart in my prom gown. 4.I was part of a seventh-inning stretch ceremony at a Red Barons game.

What is Differentiated Instruction What it is…. What it isn’t…. Use only the post-it notes at your table. Write your thoughts as to what Differentiated Instruction is… and what it isn’t…. Post the notes on your table in random order. You will visit another table and sort your post-it notes according to what Differentiated Instruction is and isn’t.

As you know, students come to our classrooms with a variety of:

Summary Statements About Learning 1.People learn what is personally meaningful to them. 2.People learn when they accept challenging but achievable goals. 3.Learning is developmental. 4.Individuals learn differently. 5.People construct new knowledge by building on their current knowledge 6.Much learning occurs through social interaction. 7.People need feedback to learn. 8.Successful learning involves use of strategies--which themselves are learned. 9.A positive emotional climate strengthens learning. 10.Learning is influenced by the total environment. Powerful Learning by Ron Brandt

Let’s at strategies that get the most bang for the buck… Use the handout provided within the packet to identify where the instructional strategies fall within the Learning Pyramid.

Practice by doing Demonstration Teach another Audio/Visuals Discussion Reading Lecture Rank the strategies on the right of the pyramid from LEAST effective (top of pyramid) to most effective (bottom). Try to guess the percentage of information a “typical” student may retain for each. Least Effective Most Effective Effective Instructional Strategies

How’d you do? Lecture 5% Reading 10% Audio/Visuals 20% Demonstrations 30% Discussion 50% Practice by doing 75% Teach others/immediate use of learning 95%

Placemat Activity The purpose of this activity is to reflect on our current professional practice. Answer the questions individually as presented on the following slides. Get together with your group and complete the “placemat.” Be sure to add all of your answers on the placemat and then determine the “big idea” or main focus of your findings in the middle of the placemat. Record your summary using 1 – 2 sentences in the center circle of your placemat.

Addressing Diverse Learner Needs List the 3 instructional practices you use most often in your math class. 1. 2. 3. Self-reflection on Professional Practice

Addressing Diverse Learner Needs Describe the unique learning needs of one of two of the students you have in your math class. Self-reflection on Professional Practice

Addressing Diverse Learner Needs How do you currently address the needs of students with diverse learning profiles? Self-reflection on Professional Practice

Addressing Diverse Learner Needs Identify the factors that make it difficult for you to adapt your instruction and/or the curriculum for diverse learners. Self-reflection on Professional Practice

Differentiation of Instruction is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs guided by general principles of differentiation such as: respectful tasksflexible groupingongoing assessment and adjustment teachers can differentiate Content Process Product according to students’ Readiness Interests Learning Profile

Content ProcessProduct Teachers Can Differentiate Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)

Content What is Taught and Learned:  Relevant  Helps students understand themselves and their lives  Authentic or “real”  Can be used immediately

Differentiating by Content

Process u Blurred line between content and process u Often used as a synonym for “activities” u Begins when the student starts making personal sense out of information, ideas, and skills

Differentiating by Process

Product u Something students produce to exhibit major portions of learning u Not pieces of work students produce during the course of a day u Vehicle through which a student shows what (s)he understands and can do as a result of learning over time

Differentiate by Product

ContentProcessProduct According to Students’ ReadinessInterest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) What students learnHow students learnsHow students show what they’ve learned

ContentProcessProduct According to Students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)

ContentProcessProduct According to Students’ ReadinessInterest Learning Profile Teachers Can Differentiate Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) Knowledge, skills…What they like…How best they learn

Ways a class can be grouped Readiness Student’s understanding, ability, and/or skill of a given topic Interest Student’s attraction and enthusiasm in relation to a particular subject or skill Learning Style Student’s particular approach to learning that is influenced by sensory, cognitive, and multiple intelligence styles as well as gender and culture.

Flexible Grouping Should be Purposeful:  May be based on student interest, learning profile, and/or readiness  May be based on needs observed during learning times  Geared to accomplish curricular goals (K-U-D) Implementation:  Purposefully plan using information collected-interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations  List groups on an overhead or place in folders or mailboxes  “On the Fly” as invitational groups Caution:  Avoid turning groups into tracking situations  Provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups  Practice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the group

“Brain Dumps” 1.Summarize ideas up to now. 2.Make a connection to your current professional development plan. 3.Plan how to use the ideas presented in your current setting. 4.Name one important piece of information that you heard up to this point that made you think differently about differentiated instruction. 5.Name one important piece of information you heard so far that you can apply to your position immediately. 6.Name one thing we discussed up to now that you want to hear more about.

Break

Welcome Back

Real Learner Vacationer Prisoner Differentiation in Action Role Play Close to 1,000 Close to 100 Close to 7,500

Teachers can differentiate: content, process, product According to student: readiness, interest, learning profile Based on the basic principles of differentiation: Respectful Tasks On-going Assessment Flexible Grouping

“Silent Sort” Sort the 9 cards describing the Guiding Principles of Differentiated Instruction according to : Flexible Grouping Ongoing Assessment Respectful Tasks

THE NINE PRINCIPLES 1. Learning experiences are based on student readiness, interest and learning style (profile). 2. Assessment of student needs is ongoing, and tasks are adjusted based on assessment data. 3. All students participate in respectful work.

THE NINE PRINCIPLES 4. The teacher is primarily a coordinator of time, space, and activities rather than a provider of information. 5. Students work in a variety of group configurations. Flexible grouping is evident. 6. Time use is flexible in response to student needs.

THE NINE PRINCIPLES 7. The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies to help target instruction to student needs. 8. Clearly established criteria are used to help support student success. 9. Student strengths are emphasized.

Analyzing the Role of the Teacher in a Differentiated Classroom Examples of differentiating for student interest, readiness or learning profile. Characteristics of a Teacher in a Differentiated Classroom Examples of the basic principles of differentiation: Respectful Tasks On-going Assessment Flexible Grouping Examples of ways that the teacher pre-assesses his students. School of Rock

After the Movie Each person in your group take two pennies from the “Two Cents Worth” jar. In your group discuss…. Examples of differentiating for student interest, readiness or learning profile. Characteristics of a Teacher in a Differentiated Classroom Examples of the basic principles of differentiation: respectful tasks, on-going assessment, and flexible grouping Examples of ways that the teacher pre-assesses his students. As you share your thought, return one penny to the jar for each thought your share.

Lunch

Brain-Based Learning See the Brain Quiz worksheet I can’t believe I make 3000 nontrivial decisions each day !

“ Keys” to Retention and Recall Say What? So What! “ It” has to make sense to you. “It” has to be relevant to you.

Gifted Students- take 8 repetitions before information is internalized Average Students - take 36 - 40 repetitions before information is internalized Special Education Students - take 70 - 250 repetitions before information is internalized Why is repetition so important?

Physical Characteristics

Movement The oxygen link When to use it  Prior to instruction  During instruction  After instruction

From A Celebration of Neurons, Robert Sylwester, 1995 “Neurons that fire together, survive together and wire together.” (Siegel, 2000)

So, what are the barriers to working memory? Cocktail party effect: M Space: DV DJF K FB IM TV Sign you name as if signing a check. Now, cross your legs, rotate feet counter clockwise and sign your name.

Can you recall the letters? Short-term memory appears to develop with age. Adults’ working memory can hold 7 bits of information (plus or minus 2). A five-year old’s working memory can hold 2 bits of info (plus or minus 2) DV DJF K FB IM TV

Lost Long Term Memory Building Networks Networks Extended How the Brain Processes Information Senses Register Information Areas in the Brain Filter Information EmotionMeaning Networks Strengthened

Time for a “Brain Dump” 1.Summarize ideas up to now. 2.Make a connection to your current professional development plan. 3.Plan how to use the ideas presented in your current setting. 4.Name one important piece of information that you heard up to this point that made you think differently about differentiated instruction. 5.Name one important piece of information you heard so far that you can apply to your position immediately. 6.Name one thing we discussed up to now that you want to hear more about.

Essential Skills for Differentiated Instruction Know Your Students Thoroughly Consistent Use of High Leverage Instructional Strategies Thorough Knowledge of the Curriculum Effective Management Strategies

Strategies to Assess the Learners What Do I Assess?  Interests  Abilities  Rate of learning  Work/learning styles and strength  Needs

Sternberg’s Three Intelligences CreativeAnalytical Practical We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students… …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.

Sternberg Survey

Which “intelligence” am I if I like… Designing new things Coming up with ideas Using my imagination Playing make-believe and pretend games Thinking of alternative solutions Noticing things people usually tend to ignore Thinking in pictures and images Inventing (new recipes, words, games) Supposing that things were different Thinking about what would have happened if certain aspects of the world were different Composing (new songs, melodies) Acting and role playing I AM CREATIVE! Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

Which “intelligence” am I if I like… Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story Comparing & contrasting points of view Criticizing my own & others’ work Thinking clearly & analytically Evaluating my & others’ points of view Appealing to logic Judging my & others’ behavior Explaining difficult problems to others Solving logical problems Making inferences & deriving conclusions Sorting & classifying Thinking about things I AM ANALYTICAL! Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

Which “intelligence” am I if I like… Taking things apart and fixing them Learning through hands on activities Making and maintaining friends Understanding and respecting others Putting into practice things I learned Resolving conflicts Advising my friends on their problems Convincing someone to do something Learning by interacting with others Applying my knowledge Working and being with others Adapting to new situations I AM PRACTICAL! Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2000

Why Do This? It helps you get to know your students It helps you and your students know their learning styles Planning and teaching become more “efficient” It is more proactive than waiting for students’ strengths to emerge Because “interest” is connected to “motivation!” And motivation is essential to learning!

Math Style Self-Expressive Style Mastery Style Understanding Style Interpersonal Style

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Verbal/LinguisticMusical/Rhythmic Logical/Mathematical Interpersonal Visual/Spatial Intrapersonal Body/Kinesthetic Naturalist

Learner Profile Card Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic Modality Multiple Intelligence Preference Gardner Analytical, Creative, Practical Sternberg Student’s Interests Math Style Gender Stripe Nanci Smith,Scottsdale,AZ

Grouping using Sternberg’s Intelligences Analytical  Your friend needs a really clear step-by- step explanation of how to count money. Please create one. Practical  Show how someone at school, home, or in our town how to count money. Help us see how and why this person needs to know how to count money. Creative  Create a brand new money system and tell about the names of the coins and the value of each.

Show the parts of _____________ and how they work. Explain why _____________ works the way it does. Diagram how _________ affects ________. Identify the key parts of _______________. Present a step-by-step approach to _____. For ANALYTICAL Thinkers Analytical = Linear – Schoolhouse Smart -- Sequential

Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply ______ to solve this real life problem: _________________. Based on your own experience, explain how _________________ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of __________, develop a plan to address the problem For PRACTICAL Thinkers Practical = Street Smart – Contextual – Focus on Use

Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ___________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ______. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a _____________ and use your “new” perspective to help us think about __________. For CREATIVE Thinkers Creative = Innovator – Outside the Box – “What if?” – Improver

Applying Differentiation Instruction

Planning into Action

Time for a “Brain Dump” 1.Summarize ideas up to now. 2.Make a connection to your current professional development plan. 3.Plan how to use the ideas presented in your current setting. 4.Name one important piece of information that you heard up to this point that made you think differently about differentiated instruction. 5.Name one important piece of information you heard so far that you can apply to your position immediately. 6.Name one thing we discussed up to now that you want to hear more about.

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