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Gender & Politics. Politics A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others. A social process.

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Presentation on theme: "Gender & Politics. Politics A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others. A social process."— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender & Politics

2 Politics A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others. A social process through which people and groups acquire, exercise, maintain, or lose power over others. (Hickley, 1999)

3 Power Is the ability of one person or group to exercise influence and control over others. Is the ability of one person or group to exercise influence and control over others. (Anderson & Taylor, 2004) (Anderson & Taylor, 2004)

4 Analysis of Power Sociologists ask and answer the following questions: Sociologists ask and answer the following questions: How is it structured in society—who has it, how is it used, and how is it built into institutions such as the state? (Anderson & Taylor, 2004)

5 Macropolitics The exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example The exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example (Henslin, 2004)

6 Micropolitics The exercise of power in everyday life The exercise of power in everyday life Example: deciding who is going to do the housework (Henslin, 2004)

7 “Women’s Power in Global Perspective” (Map from Macionis, 2005)

8 International Politics Although women are half the Earths population, they hold 18.4% seats of the world’s 180 parliaments. Although women are half the Earths population, they hold 18.4% seats of the world’s 180 parliaments. (http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm Feb )http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm

9 Women in Parliament—Worldwide Total44,644 Gender Breakdown Known For 44,044 Men35,951 Women8,094 Percentage of Women 18.4% 2009

10 Greatest Gender Equality Percentage of Seats in Parliament Percentage of Seats in Parliament Rwanda—56.3% Rwanda—56.3% Sweden -- 47% Sweden -- 47% Cuba % Cuba % Finland % Finland % Netherlands % Netherlands % United States—17% United States—17% (Inter-parliamentary Union, 2005)

11 Women in National Parliament Single/Lower house Upper house Both houses combined Nordic Countries 41.4% % Americas21.8%20.2%21.5% Europe-OSCE Excluding Nordic Nations 19.3%19.4%19.3% Sub-Saharan Africa 18.1%21.4%18.5% Asia18%16.5%17.8% Pacific13%32.6%15.2% Arab States 9.7%7.0%9.1% ( March 2009)

12 What do all these nations have in common? Canada Canada Argentina Argentina Bolivia Bolivia Nicaragua Nicaragua Panama Panama Philippines Philippines Israel Israel Poland Poland Ireland Ireland Norway Norway Burundi Burundi Rwanda Rwanda India Pakistan Sri Lanka Haiti Turkey Bangladesh Great Britain Yugoslavia Portugal Central African Republic Jamaica

13 Answer: All have had a woman president or prime minister.

14 Current Women Political Leaders President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner –Argentina President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner –Argentina Queen Margrethe II -- Denmark Queen Margrethe II -- Denmark Queen Margrethe II Queen Margrethe II President Tarja Halonen—Finland President Tarja Halonen—Finland Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir –Iceland Prime Minister Johanna Sigurdardottir –Iceland President Mary McAleese –Ireland President Mary McAleese –Ireland Queen Beatrix -- Netherlands Queen Beatrix -- Netherlands Queen Beatrix Queen Beatrix President Vaira Vike-Freiberga –Latvia President Vaira Vike-Freiberga –Latvia President Marie-Noëlle Thémereau – New Caldonea President Marie-Noëlle Thémereau – New Caldonea Governor-General Dame Pearlette Louisy –St. Lucia Governor-General Dame Pearlette Louisy –St. Lucia Prime Minister Helen Clark – New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark – New Zealand President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo – Phillipines President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo – PhillipinesGloria Macapagal-ArroyoGloria Macapagal-Arroyo Prime Minister Maria do Carmo Silveira— São Tomé and Príncipe Prime Minister Maria do Carmo Silveira— São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe (http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A html--retrieved March 2009)

15 Future The United Nations suggests at current rates it will be 500 years before women have equivalent power to men in global politics. The United Nations suggests at current rates it will be 500 years before women have equivalent power to men in global politics.

16 United States

17 U.S.-International Comparison Overall, the U.S. in 2009 ranked 71st among 188 nations in the proportion of women serving as national legislators. Overall, the U.S. in 2009 ranked 71st among 188 nations in the proportion of women serving as national legislators. (Interparliamentary Union, 2009)

18 111 th U.S. Congress 90 Women in U.S. Congress 90 Women in U.S. Congress 17 Women in the U.S. Senate— 17% (of 100) 17 Women in the U.S. Senate— 17% (of 100) 73 Women in the House of Reps % of seats (of 435) 73 Women in the House of Reps % of seats (of 435) CAWP March 2009

19 Speaker of the House Congresswoman Nanci Pelosi Congresswoman Nanci Pelosi Second in presidential line of succession Second in presidential line of succession First woman in history to hold this post First woman in history to hold this post CAWP March 2009

20 Women in the US Senate women (13D, 4R) serve in the US Senate in the 111th Congress. 17 women (13D, 4R) serve in the US Senate in the 111th Congress. To date, a total of 31 women have served in the Senate. To date, a total of 31 women have served in the Senate.(http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/Facts/Officeholders/cawpfs.html)

21 Women in Cabinet Positions in the Obama Administration Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of State Melody C. Barnes Director of the Domestic Policy Council Melody C. Barnes Director of the Domestic Policy Council Janet Napolitano Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano Secretary of Homeland Security Hilda L. Solis Secretary of Labor Hilda L. Solis Secretary of Labor

22 Women Governors women in U.S. history have served as governor women in U.S. history have served as governor 8 women currently serve as governors: 8 women currently serve as governors: Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin Alaska Gov. Sarah PalinGov. Sarah PalinGov. Sarah Palin Arizona Gov. Jan Brewer Arizona Gov. Jan BrewerGov. Jan BrewerGov. Jan Brewer North Carolina Gov. Bev Perdue North Carolina Gov. Bev PerdueGov. Bev PerdueGov. Bev Perdue Connecticut Gov. M. Jodi Rell Connecticut Gov. M. Jodi RellGov. M. Jodi RellGov. M. Jodi Rell Hawaii Gov. Linda Lingle Hawaii Gov. Linda LingleGov. Linda LingleGov. Linda Lingle Kansas Gov. Kathleen Sebelius Kansas Gov. Kathleen SebeliusGov. Kathleen SebeliusGov. Kathleen Sebelius Michigan Gov. Jennifer M. Granholm Michigan Gov. Jennifer M. GranholmGov. Jennifer M. GranholmGov. Jennifer M. Granholm Washington Gov. Chris Gregoire Washington Gov. Chris GregoireGov. Chris GregoireGov. Chris Gregoire (http://www.nga.org) March 2009

23 Women in Politics: U.S. Congress

24 Women in State Legislature (http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/Facts/Officeholders/cawpfs.html )

25 Women in Politics: Public Attitudes

26 Would America be in better hands if more women were in political office?

27 What are some examples of Macrolevel political power impacting the lives of women, men, boys and girls?

28 Micropolitics

29 Housework Women average 16.5 hours a week of housework compared to 9.2 hours for men. This pattern holds whether people are employed or not, married or not, and parenting or not. Women average 16.5 hours a week of housework compared to 9.2 hours for men. This pattern holds whether people are employed or not, married or not, and parenting or not. (Stapinski, 1998 cited in Macionis 2005)

30 Housework The closer a husband’s and wife’s earnings, the more likely they are to share housework. The closer a husband’s and wife’s earnings, the more likely they are to share housework. -- Although husbands in such marriages don’t share housework equally, they share more than other husbands. (Henslin, 2004) -- Although husbands in such marriages don’t share housework equally, they share more than other husbands. (Henslin, 2004) Unemployed husbands do the least housework. Unemployed husbands do the least housework.Why?

31 The Second Shift Refers to the housework women do after their paid job (Hochschild, 1998). Refers to the housework women do after their paid job (Hochschild, 1998). Wives who put in a 8-hour day of working for wages average 11 hours more childcare and housework each week than their husbands. (Bianchi and Spain, 1996 cited in Henslin, 2004) Wives who put in a 8-hour day of working for wages average 11 hours more childcare and housework each week than their husbands. (Bianchi and Spain, 1996 cited in Henslin, 2004) Wives are 8 times more likely than husbands to feel the division of labor is unfair. (Sanchez, 1994 cited in Henslin, 2004) Wives are 8 times more likely than husbands to feel the division of labor is unfair. (Sanchez, 1994 cited in Henslin, 2004)

32 Husbands Strategies of Resistance Hochschild interviewed 50 families and did participant research with 12 and found that the majority of husbands used the following strategies of resistance to housework: Waiting it out: Don’t volunteer for housework. When wife asks, show irritation or become glum. This discourages wife from asking again. Waiting it out: Don’t volunteer for housework. When wife asks, show irritation or become glum. This discourages wife from asking again. Playing Dumb: When doing housework, become incompetent. Playing Dumb: When doing housework, become incompetent. Needs Reduction: Ex. Wrinkled clothes, cereal, ok. Needs Reduction: Ex. Wrinkled clothes, cereal, ok. Substitute Offerings: Express appreciation to the wife for being so organized—subtle encouragement for her to keep working the second shift. Substitute Offerings: Express appreciation to the wife for being so organized—subtle encouragement for her to keep working the second shift.

33 What are other examples of microlevel power related to gender?


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