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THINKING TOOLS: Differentiating the Content

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1 THINKING TOOLS: Differentiating the Content
Nanci Cole, Michelle Wikle, and Sacha Bennett - TOSAs Sandi Ishii, Supervisor of Gifted Education Based on training by: S. Kaplan, USC, 2008

2 What is Academic Rigor? Rigor is the goal of helping students develop the capacity to understand content that is complex, ambiguous, provocative, and personally or emotionally challenging. Taking rigorous courses open the doors! Source: Teaching What Matters Most; Standards and Strategies for Raising Student Achievement by Strong, Silver, and Perini, ASCD, 2001

3 Objectives: Provide an introduction to the academic language thinking tools of Depth & Complexity and Content Imperatives. Provide time to understand and practice application of Tools to your content in order to increase the level of inquiry in the classroom.

4 Agenda Welcome/Overview Introduction- Theory
Introduction to Depth & Complexity and Content Imperatives Differentiated Rotations Quick share/Reflection/Closing

5 Depth and Complexity Thinking Tools
Recognizes individual diversity among learners Teaches toward highest level of knowing Builds expertise All thinking tools integrated into lesson design and student products add depth and complexity to your overall objective. Thinking tools are designed to help students acquire the ability to think about content in an increasingly sophisticated manner.

6 Depth and Complexity Thinking Tools
Strengthens critical thinking skills Makes something abstract more concrete Allows students to “jump” into the content and make sense of it Builds in inquiry and academic language

7 How do you know if someone is an expert?
Novice Expert Conversations More sophisticated understanding How much do cell phones cost? What are some new trends in cell phones?

8 Single Thinking Tools One at a time Depth Complexity To dig deeper
Greater breadth of understanding The thinking tool is like a magnifying glass. It gives greater dimension to what is studied.

9 Single Thinking Tool To understand RULES, you can study the patterns, details, and ethics Patterns Details Rules One part of a whole This is a way of uncovering Promotes great conversations Ethics Part to whole thinking

10 THINKING PAIRS Two thinking tools together joined with the word “AND”
What are the details AND trends of the Revolutionary War? 2 Thinking Tools = equation of knowing Changes the intellectual demand The intellectual work is rigorous

11 How do we know if students know it?
A good answer must include: Define what they are talking about Give another example Cite or reference what stimulated their ideas (evidence) We want to create intellectuals Not to just give back the right answer Not to just pass the CAHSEE

12 Allow individuals to move on
Students get tired of learning the same way using the same thinking. It is like staying on the same land without moving or cultivating it. Develop intellectualism Not just to get the right answers Nurture beyond where they currently are The children are not the inhibitors of this thinking. Teachers need to encourage it. Don’t allow students to get stuck on what you know. You must allow the students to transcend it. Not just to pass the CAHSEE

13 Research says… (GRR) Teacher directed To… Student Centered
Independent Thinkers

14 At some point during the lesson…
Teacher dominate “Ladies and gentlemen, today we are going to look for…” Student dominate “Ladies and gentlemen, what and how are you going to look for…?”

15 Creating Independent Thinkers
You can do this by using these strategies: Create inquiry to get the information Create a task defining what to do Do Independent Research

16 Allow students to be independent thinkers of the task by increasing responsibility
Here are the details in the Revolutionary War I want you to find the details in the Revolutionary War. Investigate and research the significant details in the Revolutionary War.

17 Moral Imperative Educators need to go beyond their own level of thinking. Educators need to transcend their own thinking because they need to open the doors into a student’s mind. It maybe the key to their success.

18 Students need to know: The flexibility of the language of depth and complexity Patterns This is a prerequisite to go further into the scope and sequence of the thinking tools. Cyclical Predictive Sequence Repetitive Students need to know all the synomams of the thinking prompts so they can be used instead of the prompts if needed. Depending on content, curriculum, and instruction- be flexible

19 Do you know the icons? Draw the appropriate icon next to the definition on the chart. Compare your answers with your neighbor. Start brainstorming ways you can bring depth and complexity into your classroom instruction and discussion.

20 Details Elements Factors Facts Features Specifics Traits

21 Unanswered Questions Dilemma Doubtful Unclear Unknown Unproved

22 Language of the Discipline
Jargon Terms Terminology Lingo Phrasing Lexicon

23 Patterns Cyclical Predictive Systematic Repetitive Sequential

24 Big Idea Global Idea Principle Tenet Theme Theory Thesis

25 Multiple Perspectives
Careers Experts Fields Points of View Roles Disciplines

26 Ethics Conflicts Dilemmas Positions Principles Standards Values

27 Trends Direction Force Influence Mode Style Tendency

28 Rules Code Method Order Protocol Structure Theorem

29 Across the Disciplines
Associate Connect Correlate Integrate Intersect Link

30 Change Over Time Compare past & present Note change across time
Study past, present, future

31 The affect or impact one person or event has on others.
Contribution The affect or impact one person or event has on others.

32 The beginning, root, foundation, source, or basis for something.
Origin The beginning, root, foundation, source, or basis for something.

33 How something is similar, matching, comparable, or analogous.
Parallel How something is similar, matching, comparable, or analogous.

34 Things that are opposite, contradictory, ironic or illogical.
Paradox Things that are opposite, contradictory, ironic or illogical.

35 How ideas or events meet, intersect, concur, merge, join or unite.
Convergence How ideas or events meet, intersect, concur, merge, join or unite.

36 How can I integrate the thinking tools into Cornell notes?
Teacher generates questions and student matches appropriate thinking tool and answer. Teacher chooses thinking tool and student generates question and answer. Student generates question, identifies thinking tool, and answers question.

37 Other ideas for Cornells & Thinking Tools…
Use TE to help write high level questions. Create iconic statements (combination of thinking tools). Differentiate Cornells to fit the needs of your students. Write summary/reflection prompts using thinking tools. Combine Costa’s (and/or the Keys) with thinking tools. Connect Thinking Tools to Thinking Maps . Layer Thinking Tools with Classics, Think Like a Disciplinarian, Current Events, Technology, and Metacognition.

38 Reflection Why would this be important to you?
Why would this be important to a school? Why would this be important to the world?

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